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High Temperature Energy Storage
NaS, NaMx and Molten Salt

  • Publication Date:July 2011
  • Publisher:SBI
  • Product Type: Report
  • Pages:179

High Temperature Energy Storage NaS, NaMx and Molten Salt

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage

The $2.5 billion global high temperature energy storage (HTS) market of 2020 is going to be dominated by the sale and construction of molten salt storage systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. The HTS market is composed of three categories: sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries, sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries, and molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. While NaS has been the strongest category ever since the first commercial systems were sold in 2003, it is molten salt TES systems that became the largest HTS category in 2010.

After four years of strong growth, the NaS battery market showed an unprecedented negative value for 2010. Despite this bizarre showing, the NaS HTS category has the potential for huge growth in the short and medium term because companies such as RUBENIUS in Mexico and the Abu Dhabi Water and Electric Authority in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are building hundreds of megawatts of energy storage systems designed around NaS batteries. However, lack of investment by governments and institutions into fundamental NaS battery research means the battery chemistry will be overtaken by lithium-ion in its primary sales channel of utility scale energy storage, resulting in a market decline after 2017.

Although it has been NaMx's traditional market, sales of the battery for small electric vehicles (EVs) will virtually disappear by 2015. However, NaMx will continue to be a major battery type for electric and hybrid electric buses and small trucks. More noteworthy is the fact that the battery chemistry's recent push into the stationary storage market, particularly for remote telecommunications equipment, is going to show exceptionally strong growth in the medium and long term. From less than 10% of the category's sales in 2010, the stationary segment will be responsible for over half of the NaMx market by 2019. However, for NaMx batteries to effectively compete in the long term against lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, more research into NaMx cell geometry and electrode chemistry that can operate at lower temperatures is going to be crucial to expanding overall sales of NaMx batteries by 2020.

Sales growth of molten salt TES systems (or really any thermal energy storage technology) is completely dependant on the growth of the global CSP market. Fortunately for this category, the legislation and regulation landscape for both renewable energy sources and grid energy storage is very favorable. By 2013 the U.S. will supplant Spain as the largest market for thermal energy storage and by 2015 more molten salt TES, by MWh, will be installed in the U.S. than in Spain. Both countries will continue to be strong growth regions through to 2020 due to continued CSP plant construction. However, other countries such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia will also begin to contribute significantly to the molten salt TES market by 2020.

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage by SBI Energy provides key insight into current and future markets for high temperature batteries and thermal storage worldwide, focusing on key countries for each market segment. The analysis includes definitions, current product offerings and market detail on the following segments:

  • Sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries - Typically used for grid load leveling applications.
  • Sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries - Used for electric vehicles and stationary storage applications. Often referred to as ZEBRA batteries.
  • Molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) - Used for CSP installations.

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage

The $2.5 billion global high temperature energy storage (HTS) market of 2020 is going to be dominated by the sale and construction of molten salt storage systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. The HTS market is composed of three categories: sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries, sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries, and molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. While NaS has been the strongest category ever since the first commercial systems were sold in 2003, it is molten salt TES systems that became the largest HTS category in 2010.

After four years of strong growth, the NaS battery market showed an unprecedented negative value for 2010. Despite this bizarre showing, the NaS HTS category has the potential for huge growth in the short and medium term because companies such as RUBENIUS in Mexico and the Abu Dhabi Water and Electric Authority in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are building hundreds of megawatts of energy storage systems designed around NaS batteries. However, lack of investment by governments and institutions into fundamental NaS battery research means the battery chemistry will be overtaken by lithium-ion in its primary sales channel of utility scale energy storage, resulting in a market decline after 2017.

Although it has been NaMx's traditional market, sales of the battery for small electric vehicles (EVs) will virtually disappear by 2015. However, NaMx will continue to be a major battery type for electric and hybrid electric buses and small trucks. More noteworthy is the fact that the battery chemistry's recent push into the stationary storage market, particularly for remote telecommunications equipment, is going to show exceptionally strong growth in the medium and long term. From less than 10% of the category's sales in 2010, the stationary segment will be responsible for over half of the NaMx market by 2019. However, for NaMx batteries to effectively compete in the long term against lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, more research into NaMx cell geometry and electrode chemistry that can operate at lower temperatures is going to be crucial to expanding overall sales of NaMx batteries by 2020.

Sales growth of molten salt TES systems (or really any thermal energy storage technology) is completely dependant on the growth of the global CSP market. Fortunately for this category, the legislation and regulation landscape for both renewable energy sources and grid energy storage is very favorable. By 2013 the U.S. will supplant Spain as the largest market for thermal energy storage and by 2015 more molten salt TES, by MWh, will be installed in the U.S. than in Spain. Both countries will continue to be strong growth regions through to 2020 due to continued CSP plant construction. However, other countries such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia will also begin to contribute significantly to the molten salt TES market by 2020.

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage by SBI Energy provides key insight into current and future markets for high temperature batteries and thermal storage worldwide, focusing on key countries for each market segment. The analysis includes definitions, current product offerings and market detail on the following segments:

  • Sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries - Typically used for grid load leveling applications.
  • Sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries - Used for electric vehicles and stationary storage applications. Often referred to as ZEBRA batteries.
  • Molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) - Used for CSP installations.
  • Chapter 1 Executive Summary
    • Scope & Methodology of this Report
    • HTS Category Descriptions
    • The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
    • NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
    • Sodium-Metal Halide Market
    • The Molten-Salt TES Market
    • Sodium-Sulfur (NaS) Batteries
    • Global Production
    • Smart Grid Energy Storage Applications for NaS Batteries
    • The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
    • Power Conversion System Manufacturers
    • Laws and Regulations
    • Sodium-Metal Halide (NaMx) Batteries
    • Global NaMx Production
    • Future Market Expansion
    • Funding & Research
    • Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage
    • The Cost of Production
    • Potential Market Areas
    • Laws and Regulations
    • Funding
    • Research Efforts
    • Job Creation
    • Key Competitors
    • Forecast
    • NaS Battery Market Forecast
    • NaMx Forecast
    • Molten Salt TES Forecast
  • Chapter 2 Introduction
    • Scope of this Report
    • Methodology
    • Understanding the Capacity of Energy Storage
    • Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
    • Market History
    • Key Design Issues
    • Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
    • Market History
    • Key Design Issues
    • Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems
    • Market History
    • Key Design Issues
    • Other High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Technologies
    • Other High Temperature Energy Storage Systems
    • Competing Storage Technologies
    • Comparing Vehicle & Stationary Energy Storage Technologies
    • Comparing Large Scale Energy Storage Technologies
    • Pumped Hydro
    • Compressed Air
    • Flywheels
    • Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Flow Batteries
  • Chapter 3 Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
    • World Energy Storage Capacity for Electrical Energy
    • NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
    • NaS Battery Installations
    • Market by Region: Japan Dominates
    • Market by Application: Load Leveling Leads
    • Market Drivers
    • Key Market Barriers for NaS Batteries
    • Key Market Drivers for NaS Batteries
    • Global Availability of Production
    • The Cost of Production
    • Smart Grid Energy Storage Market Applications for NaS Batteries
    • Load Shifting
    • Power Quality
    • Renewable Energy Integration
    • Emergency Power
    • The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
    • Power Conversion System Manufacturers
    • Laws and Regulations
    • California's Storage Bill AB 2514
    • Job Creation
    • Funding
    • Research Efforts
    • Environmental Impact
    • Forecast
  • Chapter 4 The Sodium-Metal Halide Battery Market
    • Sodium-Metal Halide Market
    • Market by Region: Europe Based
    • The Motive Energy Storage Market
    • Market by Application: Electric Buses & Electric Cars are Top Markets for NaMx
    • Market Drivers
    • Global Availability of Production
    • The Cost of Production
    • Future Market Expansion
    • Motive Power for Large Vehicles
    • Stationary Applications
    • Legislation & Regulation
    • Job Creation
    • Funding
    • Research Efforts
    • Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
    • Pairing NaMx Batteries with other Energy Storage for Motive Applications
    • Forecast
  • Chapter 5 Molten Salt Energy Storage
    • The Molten-Salt Market
    • Market by Application
    • Market by Region: The U.S. and Spain Spearhead Thermal Energy Storage
    • Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Drivers & Barriers
    • The Cost of Production
    • World Salt Production for Thermal Storage
    • Potential Market Areas
    • Spinning Reserve
    • Providing Energy at Peak Prices
    • Laws and Regulations
    • CSP Legislation in Spain: The 50 MW Barrier Benefits Thermal Storage
    • CSP Legislation in the U.S.: Tax Credits & Loan Guarantees
    • Power Purchase Agreements
    • Job Creation
    • Funding
    • Research Efforts
    • Modifying the Temperature Characteristics of the Salt Medium
    • Innovative TES Systems Using Molten Salt
    • Forecast
    • Molten Salt TES Hits the Giga-Time
  • Chapter 6 The HTS Market
    • The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
    • Geographical Breakdown of the HTS Market
    • Industry Breakdown of the HTS Market
    • Resources
    • Job Creation
    • Forecast
  • Chapter 7 Competitors
    • Sodium-Sulfur Battery Manufacturers
    • NGK Insulators
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • SICCAS
    • Sodium- Metal Halide Battery Manufacturers
    • EaglePicher Technologies
    • FZ SoNick
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Products & Production
    • New Developments
    • GE Transportation
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • Sumitomo Electric Industries
    • Thermal Energy Storage Manufacturers
    • Abengoa
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • Archimede Solar Energy
    • Flagsol
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • INITEC Energia
    • Pratt & Whitney
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • SENER
    • Overview
    • Performance
    • Production
    • New Developments
    • Appendix: Company Contact Information
    • NaS Battery Manufacturers & Balance of System Suppliers
    • NaMx Battery Companies
    • Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Companies
  • List of Tables
    • Table 1-1 Characteristics of some Common Energy Storage Systems
    • Table 1-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
    • Table 1-3 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
    • Table 1-5 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
    • Table 1-6 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
    • Table 1-7 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)
    • Table 1-8 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)
    • Table 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Characteristics
    • Table 2-2 Typical NaMx Battery Characteristics
    • Table 2-3 Characteristics of Molten Salt TES Systems
    • Table 2-4 Some Thermal Energy Storage Options
    • Table 2-5 Storage Technology Characteristics for Typical Installations
    • Table 3-1 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Table 3-2 Recent Important NaS Battery Installations, 2008-2010
    • Table 3-3 Grid Transmission & Distribution Applications for Energy Storage
    • Table 3-4 Energy Storage Requirements for Load Shifting Applications
    • Table 3-5 Energy Storage Requirements for Grid Power Quality Applications
    • Table 3-6 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
    • Table 3-7 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Table 3-8 Announced NaS battery projects as of 1st Quarter 2011 (in MW)
    • Table 3-9 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)
    • Table 4-1 ZEBRA Battery use by OEM, 2011
    • Table 4-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
    • Table 4-3 NaMx Production Capacity for FZ SoNick & GE Transportation, 2011
    • Table 4-5 Comparison of NaMx and Lead-Acid Batteries for a Telecommunications Cabinet
    • Table 4-6 Incremental Job Creation in the NaMx Battery Market, 2012, 2016, 2020
    • Table 5-1 CSP Plants in Operation with Molten Salt TES Systems, 2010
    • Table 5-2 Cost Estimate for Molten Salt Storage (in $/kWht)
    • Table 5-3 New Jobs Created from the Molten Salt TES Market, 2015, 2020
    • Table 5-4 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
    • Table 5-5 Current SETP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Research Initiatives, 2011
    • Table 5-6 Planned CSP Plants with Molten Salt TES Systems, Status as of June 2011
    • Table 5-7 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country for Median Forecast, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)
    • Table 6-1 Key Countries for the High Temperature Energy Storage Market
    • Table 6-2 production of Minerals Used in HTS Technologies, 2010 (in billion pounds)
    • Table 6-3 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
    • Table 7-1 NGK NAS Battery Module Specifications
    • Table 7-2 Performance Characteristics of the SICCAS SC-650 NaS Battery Cell
    • Table 7-3 FZ SoNick's ZEBRA Battery Products, 2011
    • Table 7-4 Evolution of FZ SoNick's ZEBRA Battery Cells
    • Table 7-5 GE Transportation's Durathon Battery Products (Pre-Production), 2011
    • Table 7-6 Abengoa Solar's Portfolio of Projects as of December 2010 (in MW)
    • Table 7-7 Abengoa Solar's Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
    • Table 7-8 Specifications of Flagsol's Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES Systems
    • Table 7-9 Flagsol's Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
    • Table 7-10 INITEC Energia's Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
    • Table 7-11 SolarReserve's Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
    • Table 7-12 SENER's Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
    • Table 7-13 Specifications of SENER's Molten Salt TES Systems
  • List of Figures
    • Figure 1-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 1-2 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
    • Figure 1-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
    • Figure 1-4 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
    • Figure 1-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
    • Figure 1-6 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
    • Figure 1-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
    • Figure 1-7 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
    • Figure 1-8 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
    • Figure 1-9 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
    • Figure 1-10 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
    • Figure 1-11 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 1-12 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 1-13 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Cell
    • Figure 2-2 Effect of NaS Electrolyte Thickness on Operating Temperature
    • Figure 4-3 Typical NaMx Cell and Battery
    • Figure: 2-4 Typical Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES System
    • Figure 2-5 Types of Thermal Energy Storage
    • Figure 2-6 System Ratings for Different Energy Storage Technologies
    • Figure 3-1 Total World Electricity Grid Energy Storage Capacity by Storage Type, 2009 (in MW)
    • Figure 3-2 The World NaS Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 3-3 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
    • Figure 3-4 NaS Installations by Country, 1995-2010 (in MW)
    • Figure 3-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
    • Figure 3-6 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
    • Figure 3-7 Global NaS production capacity by year, 2003-2020 (in MW)
    • Figure 3-8 Electrical Grid CO2 Reduction by NaS Usage by Month
    • Figure 3-9 Global NaS Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 4-1 The World NaMx Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 4-2 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
    • Figure 4-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
    • Figure 4-3 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
    • Figure 4-4 Cost of Nickel, 2001-2010 (in $/lb)
    • Figure 4-5 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 5-1 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 5-2 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)
    • Figure 5-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
    • Figure 5-4 CSP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Country, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
    • Figure 5-5 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
    • Figure 5-6 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
    • Figure 5-7 SQM Industrial Nitrate Production and Industrial Chemical Revenue, 2007-2010 (in thousand MT & million $)
    • Figure 5-8 Marginal Annual Value of Each Incremental Hour of Storage for a Typical Texas CSP Plant (in $ million/hour)
    • Figure 5-9 Increase in Annual Operating Profits of a CSP Plant in Texas if Spinning Reserves can be Sold (in %)
    • Figure 5-10 Sample Dispatch of a CSP Plant with 6 Hours of TES in Texas (in MWh & $/MWh)
    • Figure 5-11 U.S. SETP Thermal Energy Storage R&D Funding, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
    • Figure 5-12 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 5-13 Global Molten Salt TES Installations by Year for Median Forecast, 2008-2020 (in GWh)
    • Figure 6-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 6-2 HTS Category & Market Channel Relationships
    • Figure 6-3 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
    • Figure 6-4 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)
    • Figure 7-1 NGK Insulators Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
    • Figure 7-2 NGK Insulators NAS Battery Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
    • Figure 7-3 GE Transportation's Revenue, 2006-2010 (in billion $)
    • Figure 7-4 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
    • Figure 7-5 Abengoa Solar's Revenue, 2007-2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 7-6 Solar Millennium's Technology & Construction Segment Revenue, FY2006-FY2010 (in million $)
    • Figure 7-7 Pratt & Whitney Revenue, 2006-2011 (in billion $)
    • Figure 7-8 SENER Revenue, 2006-2010 (in million $)
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