• PDF: Delivered by email usually within 4 to 8 UK business hours.

Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse: Ultrapure water, challenging waste streams and improved efficiency

Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse: Ultrapure water, challenging waste streams and improved efficiency

Overview

The focus of investment in desalination and reuse is changing. The boom in municipal desalination and reuse which quadrupled the size of that market over the past decade has mostly played itself out. Now the smart money is on industrial water - with water intensive industries investing in water technologies that enable them to use water more efficiently, this is the fastest growing sector of the water market today.

Water technology companies need to position themselves now to take advantage of this growth - or miss out. Industrial desalination and water reuse is your key to this market. From the continuously advancing ultrapure water systems that underpin the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries to the to the high recovery technologies becoming more prevalent for produced water management, we show you the opportunities

Covers: Oil and Gas, Petrochemicals, Power, Mining, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceuticals, Pulp & Paper, Microelectronics.

In 271 pages, this report provides:

Market and Technology Overview

What's driving the market - water scarcity, water risk, environmental protection, process efficiency and complex waste waters
Coverage of key technologies relevant to industrial desalination and water reuse
Technology trends and market forecasts - covers the geographies which are most under pressure to invest in water efficiency and improved wastewater treatment and industry specific forecast categories by treatment type.

Key Technology Areas

In this report, we provide our most in depth coverage of technologies than any report published so far:

Seawater desalination: where and why are industrial water users turning to seawater desalination, and what are the trends in the membrane and thermal technologies they are using?
Ultrapure water: value and technology trends in high purity process water systems including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodeionisation
Industrial wastewater desalination: why is demand for high recovery wastewater desalination systems growing so quickly, which industrial processes are driving demand, and how is technology shaping the market?
Other advanced treatment technologies: how demand for improved water efficiency is driving technological development in biological treatment, physical/chemical separation and disinfection.

Market Sector Profiles

The market sector profiles highlight what makes each industrial sector so unique, paving the way for your involvement. The profiles cover: water requirements, wastewater challenges, trends in technology and water reuse, procurement models, supply chain analysis and a market forecast.

Oil and gas: From the Canadian oil sands, to coal seam gas in Australia, and enhanced off-shore oil recovery, water treatment is emerging as a key driver of value across the energy sector. This section pinpoints the specific market niches which offer the richest opportunities for water technology companies.
Refining and petrochemicals: the downstream petrochemical industry is moving more towards emerging economies like India and China as well as upstream producer economies in the Gulf and North Africa. Most new refining capacity is being built in water scarce areas, prompting a revolution in the way water is managed in this sector.
Power generation: electricity generation is the largest industrial water use. It's also responsible for some of the most challenging wastewaters. This, plus the growing power demands of emerging economies and the need to increase the efficiency of steam generation in mature economies, creates a recipe for solid market growth.
Food and Beverage: this is the largest industrial market for water technology by total expenditure. It is also the one which is most under pressure to improve its water stewardship.
Pharmaceutical: global healthcare expenditure is expected to grow faster than the global economy as a whole for the foreseeable future. It also has some of the most complex water treatment needs seen anywhere in the industrial sector.
Microelectronics: the most significant and challenging market for high purity water. Process water requirements are continuing to become more exacting, while stewardship concerns are making companies rethink their approach to water efficiency and effluent treatment.
Pulp and Paper: a massive user of water, and potentially a significant source of pollution. Although the majority of plants are located in water rich regions, producers are being pushed towards reuse by tougher environmental regulation.
Mining: the process water needs of the mining industry are increasingly pressed up against social and environmental limits, forcing mining companies to make desalination and water reuse a central part of their strategy.

Our Industry-Specific Market Forecast Categories

Oil and Gas
• Shale gas conventional treatment
• Shale gas high recovery desalination
• CBM high recovery desalination
• Sulphate removal package / low salinity systems
• Water recycling systems for steam EOR
• High recovery desalination for steam EOR
• Produced water polishing
• Produced water RO/evaporation

Refining and Petrochemicals
• Pretreatment systems
• Ultrapure water systems
• Wastewater treatment systems
• Seawater desalination plants
• ZLD systems
• Power Pretreatment systems
• Boiler feedwater systems
• Condensate polishing systems
• Wastewater treatment systems (excl. ZLD)
• Seawater desalination
• Co-located power/desalination
• ZLD/high recovery desalination systems

Food and Beverage
• Pretreatment Systems
• Polishing systems
• Wastewater treatment systems

Pharmaceutical
• Pretreatment systems
• Ultrapure water systems
• Disinfection systems
• Wastewater treatment systems
• Wastewater polishing technologies

Microelectronics
• Pretreatment systems
• Ultrapure water systems
• Wastewater treatment systems

Pulp and Paper
• Process water systems (excl. UPW)
• Boiler feedwater systems
• Wastewater treatment systems

Mining
• Process water treatment systems
• Wastewater treatment systems
• Seawater desalination systems

Who should read this report?

This report is essential reading for anyone involved in water technology with ambitions to succeed in some of the fastest growing and most lucrative niches of the global water market today.
Water and wastewater treatment systems suppliers: this is your guide to the most significant market opportunities available today
Desalination companies: with mounting competition and disappointing levels of growth in the municipal market, diversification in to industrial desalination is an essential strategy right now
Equipment suppliers: understand the changing needs of your customer base so your business plan stays relevant
Specialist water technology companies: discover the potential for niche applications of your technology
Investors: discover where the action is in today's water market, and who is best placed to capitalise on it
Operators: industrial outsourcing looks set to grow faster than municipal outsourcing over the next five years - find out how to take advantage of the opportunities
Publication information ii
Executive summary iii
i The proposition iii
Figure i UPW, seawater desalination and wastewater desalination by industrial segment, 2011-2025 iv
ii Oil and gas iv
Figure ii Oil and gas industry market forecast, 2011-2025 v
Figure iii Oil and gas industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 v
iii Refining and petrochemicals vi
Figure iv Refining and petrochemicals industry market forecast, 2011-2025 vi
Figure v Refining and petrochemicals industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 vi
iv Power vii
Figure vi Power industry market forecast, 2011-2025 vii
Figure vii Power industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 vii
v Food and beverage viii
Figure viii Food and beverage industry market forecast, 2011-2025 viii
Figure ix Food and beverage industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 viii
vi Pharmaceutical ix
Figure x Pharmaceutical industry market forecast, 2011-2025 ix
Figure xi Pharmaceutical industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 ix
vii Microelectronics x
Figure xii Microelectronics industry market forecast, 2011-2025 x
Figure xiii Microelectronics industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 x
viii Pulp and paper xi
Figure xiv Pulp and paper industry market forecast, 2011-2025 xi
Figure xv Pulp and paper industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 xi
ix Mining xii
Figure xvi Mining industry market forecast, 2011-2025 xii
Figure xvii Mining industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 xii
x Technologies xiii

1. Market and technology overview 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Market drivers 1
1.2.1 Water scarcity 1
1.2.1.1 Case study: Coca-Cola and brand risk 1
1.2.1.2 Case Study: Tia Maria 2
1.2.1.3 Case study: the semiconductor industry in Taiwan 2
1.2.2 Water risk 3
1.2.3 The Global Water Risk Index 3
Figure 1.1 Global Water Risk Index: global water supply 4
Figure 1.2 Global Water Risk Index: global water demand in 2030 4
Figure 1.3 Global Water Risk Index: water risk in 2030 5
1.2.4 Other drivers of water technology investment 5
1.3 Membrane filtration 5
1.3.1 Microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes 6
Figure 1.4 A microfiltration membrane removes suspended solids 6
Figure 1.5 Dead-end and cross-flow membrane modules 6
Figure 1.6 Build up of material on ultrafiltration membranes, and cleaning processes 7
1.3.2 Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes 7
Figure 1.7 Removal of dissolved solids by reverse osmosis 8
1.4 Electrical charge separation 9
1.4.1 Ion exchange 9
Figure 1.8 Ion exchange process 9
Figure 1.9 Types of resins and their applications 10
1.4.2 Electrodialysis 10
Figure 1.10 An electrodialysis cell 11
1.4.2.1 Electrodialysis reversal 11
1.4.2.2 Electrodeionisation 11
1.4.2.3 Problems 12
1.5 Seawater desalination technologies 12
1.5.1 Reverse osmosis (SWRO) 12
1.5.2 Multiple-effect distillation (MED) 12
Figure 1.11 The multi-effect distillation process with three distillation chambers 13
1.5.3 Multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF) 13
Figure 1.12 Multi-stage flash evaporation process with three evaporation chambers 14
1.6 High recovery technologies 14
1.6.1 Vapour compression 15
Figure 1.13 Vapour compression evaporation process 15
1.6.2 Brine concentrators 15
Figure 1.14 A falling film brine concentrator with vapour compression 16
1.6.3 Crystallisers 17
Figure 1.15 A forced circulation crystalliser 17
1.6.4 Filter presses 18
Figure 1.16 The operation of a diaphragm plate filter press 18
1.6.5 High recovery reverse osmosis 18
Figure 1.17 Comparison of high recovery and conventional reverse osmosis systems 19
1.6.6 Comparison of high recovery technologies 19
Figure 1.19 Comparison of high recovery desalination technologies 19
1.7 Chemical treatment 19
1.7.1 Lime softening 19
1.7.1.1 Cold and warm lime softening 20
Figure 1.20 Cold and warm lime softening processes in a softening basin 20
1.7.1.2 Hot lime softening 20
Figure 1.21 Hot lime softening processes in a downflow sludge contact unit 21
1.8 Physical treatment 21
1.8.1 Coagulation and flocculation 21
Figure 1.22 Coagulation and flocculation create clumps of suspended particles 21
1.8.2 Adsorption processes 22
1.9 Biological wastewater treatment 22
1.9.1 Removal of nutrients 23
1.9.2 Removal of heavy metals 23
1.10 Disinfection 23
1.10.1 Disinfection with chlorine-based compounds 23
1.10.2 Disinfection with ultraviolet light 24
Figure 1.23 Emission of ultraviolet light from an array of mercury vapour lamps 24
1.10.3 Disinfection by ozonation 25
Figure 1.24 Ozone breaks down micro-organisms in deep contact chambers 25
1.11 Technology trends and market forecast 26
1.11.1 Notes on the forecast 26
Figure 1.25 Industry-specific forecast categories and overall forecast categories 26
1.11.2 Ultrapure water technology trends 27
Figure 1.26 Advantages and disadvantages of EDI process 27
Figure 1.27 The ultrapure water market by industry segment, 2011-2017 28
Figure 1.28 The ultrapure water market by technology, 2011-2017 29
Figure 1.29 The ultrapure water market by region, 2011-2017 29
1.11.3 High recovery wastewater desalination 30
1.11.3.1 Wastewater desalination technology trends 30
Figure 1.30 The industrial wastewater desalination market by industry segment 2011-2017 31
Figure 1.31 The industrial wastewater desalination market by region, 2011-2017 32
Figure 1.32 The industrial wastewater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017 32
1.11.3.2 Wastewater desalination alternate scenario 33
Figure 1.33 The industrial wastewater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 33
1.11.4 Seawater desalination 33
1.11.4.1 Seawater desalination technology trends 33
Figure 1.34 All industrial seawater desalination in the context of all seawater desalination, 1990-2011 34
Figure 1.35 Contracted >10,000 m³/d industrial seawater desalination plants by off-taker industry, 1990-2011 34
Figure 1.36 Seawater desalination plants for industrial customers by technology, 1990-2011 35
Figure 1.37 The industrial seawater desalination market by industry segment, 2011-2017 35
Figure 1.38 The industrial seawater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017 36
Figure 1.39 The industrial seawater desalination market by region, 2011-2017 36
1.11.4.2 Seawater desalination alternate scenario 37
Figure 1.40 The industrial seawater desalination market by industry segment, 2011-2017: alternate scenario 37
1.11.5 The overall market 38
Figure 1.41 UPW, seawater desalination and wastewater desalination by industrial segment, 2011-2025 38
Figure 1.42 Desalination and water reuse market forecast by major market, 2011-2025 39
Figure 1.43 Membrane markets, 2011-2017 40
Figure 1.44 Breakdown of equipment for other process water and other wastewater treatment, 2011-2017 41

2. Oil and gas 42
2.1 Water and wastewater in the oil and gas industry 42
2.1.1 Onshore conventional oil 42
Figure 2.1 Typical water and oil production profile of an oil well in the North Atlantic 42
Figure 2.2 Salinity of produced water in the U.S. 43
Figure 2.3 Water to oil ratios of selected producers 44
2.1.2 Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 44
Figure 2.4 Primary, secondary and tertiary oil recovery 45
Figure 2.5 Global oil production by EOR method 45
Figure 2.6 low salinity water in polymer flood 46
2.1.3 Steam injection for heavy oil and oil sands 46
2.1.4 In-situ mining of oil sands 46
Figure 2.7 Inorganic water chemistry of tailings water at Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin 47
Figure 2.8 Organic chemistry of tailings water at Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin 47
2.1.5 Offshore conventional oil 47
2.1.6 Conventional gas 47
Figure 2.9 Typical produced water constituents from oil, gas and coalbed methane (CBM) production 48
2.1.7 Shale gas 48
Figure 2.10 Fracturing fluid components 49
Figure 2.11 Flowback reuse as fracturing fluid contaminants 49
Figure 2.12 Average volumes of frac and drilling water in Barnett, Fayetteville, Haynesville & Marcellus shale 50
2.1.8 Coalbed methane 50
Figure 2.13 Gas and produced water from CBM 50
2.1.9 Summary of water and wastewater challenges in the oil and gas industry 51
2.2 Market drivers 51
2.2.1 Beneficial reuse of conventional oil and gas produced water 51
Figure 2.14 U.S. oil and gas produced water volumes by management practice 51
Figure 2.15 Global produced water volumes by management practice 52
Figure 2.16 Use of produced water in agriculture 52
Figure 2.17 Cost of produced water management alternatives 53
Figure 2.18 Oil reserves and water risk 54
2.2.2 Low salinity water and sulphate removal for flood and enhanced oil recovery 54
2.2.2.1 Sulphate removal drivers 54
Figure 2.19 Sulphate removal offshore adoption 55
Figure 2.20 Sulphate removal and the growth of the deep water oil production sector 55
Figure 2.21 Deepwater offshore crude production, 2010-2030 56
Figure 2.22 Deepwater production in the Atlantic Rim, 2000-2020 56
2.2.2.2 Low salinity water flood 56
Figure 2.23 Forecast of oil production by EOR from different countries in 2015 and 2030 57
2.2.2.3 Low salinity water for chemical EOR 57
Figure 2.24 EOR market development 58
Figure 2.25 EOR process selection according to reservoir depth and oil viscosity 58
Figure 2.26 Cost profiles of different approaches to EOR 59
Figure 2.27 Chemical floods since 1985 59
2.2.3 Water recycling for steam flood 60
Figure 2.28 Top 10 Countries for global steam flood operations 60
Figure 2.29 Oil production from steam EOR, 1980-2012 60
Figure 2.30 Canadian crude oil production forecast 2007-2020 61
Figure 2.31 Potential growth in oil sand operators' water handling 61
Figure 2.32 SAGD capacity in the Canadian oil sands 62
Figure 2.33 Long term oil supply cost curve 63
2.2.4 Shale gas produced water management 63
Figure 2.34 Global shale plays 63
Figure 2.35 Technically recoverable shale gas resources by country 64
Figure 2.36 Status of international shale plays 64
Figure 2.37 Gas production costs and spot market prices 64
Figure 2.38 Natural gas price trends: Henry Hub spot price and LNG import prices in Europe and Japan 65
Figure 2.39 Shale gas production by state 66
Figure 2.40 Proven shale gas reserves by state and class II injection wells 66
2.2.5 Coalbed methane produced water management 67
Figure 2.41 Map of the world's CBM resources 67
Figure 2.42 CBM reserves and production by country 68
2.2.5.1 CBM produced water in the U.S. 68
Figure 2.43 Summary of produced water management in the main U.S. CBM basins 69
2.2.5.2 CSG produced water in Australia 69
Figure 2.44 CSG water desalination plants in operation/contracted 70
Figure 2.45 Upcoming opportunities in Australian CSG water treatment 70
2.2.5.3 CBM produced water elsewhere in the world 71
2.3 Technologies for desalination and water reuse in the oil and gas industry 71
2.3.1 Produced water management technologies for conventional oil and gas 71
2.3.1.1 Minimisation 71
2.3.1.2 Oil/water separation 72
Figure 2.46 Oil water separation and treatment schematic 72
Figure 2.47 Differences between IGF and DGF 73
2.3.1.3 Produced water polishing 73
Figure 2.48 Off-shore produced water regulation 74
2.3.1.4 Technologies for gas field produced water management 74
2.3.2 Steam EOR recycling technologies 74
Figure 2.49 Steam EOR evaporation and high recovery reverse osmosis references 75
Figure 2.50 Saltworks seawater desalination circuit 76
Figure 2.51 Produced water volume reduction guidelines using thermal and membrane technologies 76
2.3.3 Technologies for sulphate removal and low salinity water 76
Figure 2.52 Sulphate removal technology train evolution 77
2.3.4 Technologies for unconventional gas produced water management 77
2.4 Supply chain analysis 78
2.4.1 Reaching the customer 78
2.4.2 Procurement models 78
2.4.3 Market structure 79
Figure 2.53 Significant company acquisitions, mergers and joint ventures 79
2.4.4 Market entry 79
2.5 Market forecast 80
2.5.1 Overall picture 80
Figure 2.54 Oil and gas industry market forecast, 2011-2025 80
Figure 2.55 Oil and gas industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 81
2.5.2 Reference and alternate scenarios 81
2.5.2.1 Unconventional gas 81
Figure 2.56 Oil and gas industry, unconventional gas combined, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 82
Figure 2.57 Oil and gas industry, unconventional gas combined, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 82
2.5.2.2 Steam and water flood systems 83
Figure 2.58 Oil and gas industry, steam and water flood systems, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 83
Figure 2.59 Oil and gas industry, steam and water flood systems, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 83
2.5.2.3 Produced water treatment systems 84
Figure 2.60 Oil and gas industry, produced water treatment systems, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 84
Figure 2.61 Oil and gas industry, produced water treatment systems, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 84

3. Refining and petrochemicals 85
3.1 Introduction 85
3.1.1 Introduction to refining 85
Figure 3.1 Main crude oil fractions by chain length 85
3.1.2 Crude oil refining processes 85
3.1.2.1 Desalting 85
3.1.2.2 Atmospheric distillation 85
3.1.2.3 Further processing 86
3.1.3 Current refining capacity 86
Figure 3.2 Current refinery locations, 2011 86
Figure 3.3 Global refining capacity by country, 2011 86
Figure 3.4 Top 20 countries by refining capacity, 2011 87
Figure 3.5 Global refining capacity by region, 2012 87
3.2 Drivers for water reuse and advanced wastewater treatment technologies 87
3.2.1 Environmental regulations 87
3.2.2 Economic considerations 88
Figure 3.6 Crack spreads for gasoline and heating oil, 2006-2012 88
3.2.3 Water scarcity 88
3.2.4 Operational reliability 88
3.3 Refinery water requirements 89
3.3.1 Refinery water systems 89
Figure 3.7 Refinery water systems 89
3.3.2 Water use in refining 89
3.3.2.1 Boiler feedwater (BFW) 89
3.3.2.2 Cooling water 89
3.3.2.3 Process water 90
3.3.2.4 Treatment methods for contaminants in raw water 90
Figure 3.8 Water quality requirements for refinery's water streams 90
Figure 3.9 Potential contaminants in raw water 91
3.3.3 Water volumes for refining 91
Figure 3.10 Wastewater generation by U.S. refineries with crude oil capacities > 300,000 bbl/d 92
3.4 Demineralisation and desalination technologies 92
3.4.1 Technologies for producing BFW 92
3.4.1.1 Water softening 92
3.4.1.2 Demineralisation technology trains for BFW 92
3.4.2 Seawater desalination 93
Figure 3.11 Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by region, 1990-2011 93
Figure 3.12 Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by region and year, 1990-2011 93
Figure 3.13 Large scale seawater desalination plants for refineries, 1990-2011 94
Figure 3.14 Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by technology, 1990-2011 95
3.5 Wastewater challenges 95
3.5.1 Wastewater streams and volumes 95
Figure 3.15 Main refinery processes and wastewater streams generated 95
3.5.2 Strong wastes 95
3.5.3 Oily wastewater 96
3.5.4 Blowdown and condensate 96
3.5.4.1 Cooling tower blowdown 96
3.5.4.2 Condensate from boiler blowdown and steam generators 96
3.5.5 Wastewater streams generated by advanced water treatment processes 96
3.6 Wastewater treatment technologies 97
Figure 3.16 Typical refinery WWTP technologies 97
Figure 3.17 Wastewater streams and wastewater treatment in the refining industry 98
3.6.1 Emerging trends in refinery wastewater treatment 99
3.7 Water reuse 99
3.7.1 Sources of water for reuse 99
Figure 3.18 Water reuse applications and source of water 99
3.7.1.1 Stripped sour water 99
3.7.1.2 Recovered condensate 99
3.7.1.3 Tertiary and advanced wastewater treatment 100
Figure 3.19 Trends in water reuse technologies 100
3.7.2 Zero liquid discharge 100
3.7.3 Demand for advanced water reuse technologies 100
3.8 Supply chain analysis 101
3.8.1 Procurement models 101
3.8.1.1 EPC model 101
Figure 3.20 Seawater desalination for refining by EPC contractor, 1990-2011 101
3.8.1.2 EP model 102
3.8.1.3 Direct procurement of treatment solutions 102
3.8.2 Factors that influence decision making 102
3.8.3 Maintaining a market presence 102
3.9 Market forecast 103
3.9.1 Refining projects 103
Figure 3.21 Future refining projects, 2012-2020 103
Figure 3.22 Future additional refining capacity by country, 2012-2017 103
3.9.2 Reference and alternate scenarios 104
3.9.3 Overall picture 104
Figure 3.23 Refining and petrochemicals industry market forecast, 2011-2025 104
Figure 3.24 Refining and petrochemicals industry: top country markets, 2013-2017 105
Figure 3.25 Refining and petrochemicals industry: regional markets, 2013-2017 105
3.9.4 Seawater desalination 106
Figure 3.26 Refining and petrochemicals industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 106
Figure 3.27 Refining and petrochemicals industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 106

4. Power 107
4.1 Introduction 107
4.2 Water intensive processes 108
Figure 4.1 Water cycles and treatment processes in power generation 108
4.2.1 Boiler water in the steam cycle 108
4.2.2 Cooling cycle 109
Figure 4.2 Water consumption of selected cooling systems in coal-fired power stations 109
4.2.3 Combined cycle power plants 109
Figure 4.3 Water use in a combined cycle power plant 110
Figure 4.4 Projected water use volumes at the CPV Vaca station combined cycle power plant 110
4.2.4 Flue gas desulphurisation 111
Figure 4.5 Limestone addition removes sulphur dioxide from flue gas 111
4.2.5 Ash handling systems 111
Figure 4.6 Percentage of US coal-fired power plants using wet ash handling systems 112
4.2.6 Coal gasification 112
Figure 4.7 Water use in coal gasification and synthetic gas cleaning 113
4.2.7 Nuclear power industry 113
4.2.8 Concentrated solar power 113
Figure 4.8 Potential energy supply and water use from concentrated solar power plants in the U.S. 114
4.3 Process water requirements 114
4.3.1 Purity of boiler makeup 114
Figure 4.9 ASME guidelines for boiler water purity at increasing pressure and a constant temperature 114
4.3.2 Cooling tower makeup 114
4.4 Wastewater characteristics 115
4.4.1 Cooling tower blowdown 115
Figure 4.10 Concentration of contaminants in the cooling cycle 115
4.4.2 FGD wastewater 115
Figure 4.11 Concentrations of contaminants in FGD wastewater 115
4.5 Demineralisation technologies for process water 116
4.5.1 Treatment options for steam cycle boilers 116
4.6 Wastewater treatment technologies 116
4.6.1 Zero-liquid discharge treatment of cooling tower blowdown 116
4.6.2 Treatment of FGD wastewater 116
Figure 4.12 Wastewater treatment processes following flue gas desulphurisation 116
4.6.2.1 Opportunities for zero-liquid discharge technologies 117
Figure 4.13 Coal-fired power stations treating FGD wastewater in the United States 117
Figure 4.14 ENEL power plants using zero-liquid discharge technology 117
4.6.2.2 Biological treatment for selenium removal 118
4.7 Market drivers 118
4.7.1 Trends in fuel use and power plant construction 118
4.7.1.1 Coal 118
Figure 4.15 Annual additional capacity of new coal-fired power plants, 1970-2015 119
4.7.1.2 Gas 119
Figure 4.16 Annual additional capacity of new gas-fired power plants, 1970-2015 120
4.7.1.3 Alternative sources 120
Figure 4.17 Annual additional capacity of nuclear power plants, 1970-2015 121
4.7.1.4 Global trends 121
Figure 4.18 Global cumulative generating capacity, 1970-2015 122
Figure 4.19 Projected additional capacity for our three forecast regions between 2013 and 2017 122
4.7.2 Increased use of FGD systems 123
Figure 4.20 Techniques used to mitigate the emission of sulphur dioxide from coal-fired plants in 2011 123
Figure 4.21 Growth of wet limestone scrubbers as method of desulphurisation at coal plants in the USA 124
4.7.3 Regulation of emissions 124
4.7.4 Increasing boiler and turbine efficiency 124
Figure 4.22 Temperature and pressure of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants 125
Figure 4.23 Growth in generating capacity provided by supercritical power plants, 1980-2011 126
4.7.5 Coal gasification 126
Figure 4.24 Monthly cost of fossil fuels for power generation in the USA 126
Figure 4.25 Increase in generating capacity at IGCC plants, 2000-2016 127
4.7.6 Co-located water and power projects 127
Figure 4.26 Generating capacity of power plants providing heat for thermal desalination in 2011 128
4.8 Water reuse strategies 128
Figure 4.27 Water consumption and discharge in the cooling systems of U.S. power plants 128
4.9 Supply chain analysis 129
4.9.1 FGD market 129
4.9.2 Procurement models 129
4.9.2.1 Procurement relationships 129
4.9.2.2 Procurement process for mobile systems 130
4.9.3 Procurement process in the United States 130
4.9.3.1 Outsourcing of water treatment systems 130
4.9.3.2 Outsourcing of wastewater treatment systems 130
4.9.4 Procurement process in China 130
4.9.5 Procurement process in India 130
4.9.5.1 Tendering 130
4.9.5.2 Funding 131
4.9.6 Market players 131
Figure 4.28 Companies providing equipment to the U.S. power market 131
Figure 4.29 Companies providing water treatment equipment to the Chinese power market 132
Figure 4.30 Companies active within the Indian power market 132
Figure 4.31 Companies providing water treatment equipment to the Indian power market 132
4.10 Market forecast 133
4.10.1 Power plant projects and installed base 133
4.10.2 Overall picture 133
Figure 4.32 Power industry market forecast, 2011-2025 133
Figure 4.33 Power industry: top country markets, 2013-2017 134
Figure 4.34 Power industry: regional markets, 2013-2017 134
4.10.3 Reference and alternate scenarios 134
Figure 4.35 Power industry: seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 135
Figure 4.36 Power industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 135
Figure 4.37 Power industry: water and ww treatment ex. seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 136
Figure 4.38 Power industry: water and ww treatment ex. seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 136
Figure 4.39 Power industry, co-located power/desalination: Reference scenario 137
Figure 4.40 Power industry, co-located power/desalination: Alternate scenario 137

5. Food and beverage 138
5.1 Introduction 138
5.1.1 F&B subsectors 138
Figure 5.1 Food and beverage industry subsectors 138
5.1.2 Food processing 138
Figure 5.2 Generic food and beverage processing path for fruit/vegetables and meat raw materials 139
5.1.3 Water volumes in the F&B industry 139
Figure 5.3 Estimates of global food and beverage water use in 2012 140
5.2 Process water requirements and technologies 140
5.2.1 Uses of water in the F&B industry 140
Figure 5.4 Water consuming activities in food and beverage plants 140
5.2.1.1 Water that contacts food (cleaning equipment and food processing) 140
5.2.1.2 Other operations (utility water, cleaning floors) 141
5.2.2 Process water technologies 141
Figure 5.5 Simplified process water treatment line 141
Figure 5.6 Process water technology categories 142
5.2.2.1 Membrane technologies for process water 142
5.2.2.2 Technology trends 142
5.2.3 Efficiency trends 142
5.2.3.1 Cleaning water efficiency 142
5.2.3.2 Utility water efficiency 143
5.2.3.3 Process water efficiency 143
5.2.3.4 Other water efficiency practices 143
5.3 Market drivers 143
5.3.1 Brand protection 144
5.3.1.1 The sustainability factor 144
5.3.1.2 The risk factor 144
5.3.2 Water scarcity 144
5.3.3 Regulations 145
5.3.3.1 Water abstraction regulations 145
5.3.3.2 Process water quality standards 145
5.3.3.3 Wastewater discharge standards 145
5.3.3.4 Adoption of universal regulations at plant sites 145
5.3.4 Geographical trends 146
Figure 5.7 Countries mentioned in the expansion plans of 50 leading F&B companies, grouped by region 146
5.4 Wastewater challenges 146
5.4.1 Wastewater discharge options 146
5.4.2 Wastewater characteristics 146
Figure 5.8 Wastewater characteristics from food and beverage subsectors 147
5.5 Wastewater treatment technologies 147
5.5.1 Overview of wastewater treatment technologies 147
Figure 5.9 Wastewater treatment technologies 148
5.5.2 Wastewater treatment technology trends 148
5.5.2.1 Anaerobic digester technology trends 148
5.5.2.2 Aerobic systems: MBBR versus MBR 148
5.5.2.3 Membrane-based technology trends in wastewater 148
5.6 Water reuse strategies 149
5.6.1 Condensate reuse 149
5.6.1.1 Boiler condensate return systems 149
5.6.1.2 Product condensate recovery 149
5.6.2 Water management 150
5.6.3 Water reuse trends 150
5.7 Supply chain analysis 150
5.7.1 Procurement process 150
Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse
5.7.1.1 Operation and maintenance 151
5.7.1.2 Technology purchasing 151
5.7.1.3 Local versus international suppliers 151
5.7.1.4 One-stop shop versus separate technologies 151
5.7.2 Procurement models 151
5.7.2.1 Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) 152
5.7.2.2 Design, build, operate and maintain (DBOM) 152
5.7.2.3 Acquire, operate and transfer (AOT) 152
5.7.2.4 Build, own, operate and maintain (BOOM) versus build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) 152
5.7.2.5 Request for quotation (RFQ) 152
5.7.3 Market entry 152
5.7.3.1 Dominance of market players 152
5.7.3.2 Market entry potential for smaller/niche players 153
5.8 Market forecast 154
5.8.1 Market background 154
5.8.2 Overall picture 154
Figure 5.10 Food and beverage industry market forecast, 2011-2025 154
Figure 5.11 Food and beverage industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 155
5.8.3 Reference and alternate scenarios 155
Figure 5.12 Food and beverage industry, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 155
Figure 5.13 Food and beverage industry, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 156

6. Pharmaceutical 157
6.1 Introduction 157
6.1.1 Introduction to the pharmaceutical industry 157
6.1.1.1 Consolidation in the pharmaceutical industry 157
6.1.2 Product safety in the pharmaceutical industry 157
6.1.3 Processing of pharmaceutical products 157
6.1.3.1 Pharmaceutical products 157
6.1.3.2 Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes 158
Figure 6.1 Generalised manufacturing processing steps 158
6.1.4 Water in the pharmaceutical industry 158
6.1.4.1 Water consumption in the pharmaceutical industry 158
6.2 Process water requirements 159
6.2.1 Pharmacopoeias 159
6.2.2 European pharmacopoeia - pharmaceutical grade water 159
Figure 6.2 European pharmacopoeia grades of water 159
6.2.3 United States pharmacopoeia - Pharmaceutical grade water 160
Figure 6.3 USP grades of water 160
Figure 6.4 USP water for pharmaceutical applications 161
6.2.4 Japanese pharmacopoeia - Pharmaceutical grade water 162
Figure 6.5 JP grades of water 162
6.2.5 Pharmaceutical grade water quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. And JP 162
Figure 6.6 Purified water quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. And JP 162
6.2.5.1 PW comparison 162
Figure 6.7 WFI quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. and JP 163
6.2.5.2 WFI comparison 163
6.2.6 Process water overview 163
6.3 Drivers 163
6.3.1 Cost 163
6.3.2 Brand 164
6.3.2.1 Energy efficiency 164
6.3.2.2 Water efficiency 164
6.3.3 Regulations 164
6.3.4 Industry trends 164
6.3.4.1 Geographic shift 164
6.4 Process water technologies 165
6.4.1 Typical treatment trains 165
Figure 6.8 Technology options for treatment steps 165
6.4.2 Pretreatment 166
6.4.3 Activated carbon filters 166
6.4.4 Softeners (ion exchange) 166
6.4.5 Disinfection/sanitisation 166
6.4.5.1 Thermal methods 166
6.4.5.2 Chemical methods 166
6.4.5.3 UV radiation (In-line) 166
6.4.5.4 Clean-in-place (CIP) 167
6.4.6 Deionisation 167
6.4.7 Membrane based technologies 167
6.4.7.1 UF 167
6.4.7.2 RO 167
6.4.7.3 Distillation 167
6.4.8 Technology trends 167
6.4.8.1 Disinfection technology trends 167
6.4.8.2 Distillation technology trends 168
6.4.8.3 RO trends 168
6.4.8.4 UF/MF/NF trends 168
6.4.8.5 Distillation versus membrane based technologies 168
Figure 6.9 Generalised schematic of a pharmaceutical water treatment system 169
6.5 Wastewater challenges 170
6.5.1 Wastewater characteristics 170
6.5.1.1 Micropollutants 170
6.5.1.2 Wastewater microbial loads 170
6.6 Wastewater treatment technologies 170
6.6.1 Technology categorisation 170
Figure 6.10 Wastewater treatment technologies 170
6.6.1.1 Wastewater treatment trends 171
6.7 Water reuse strategies 171
6.7.1 Water reuse in the pharmaceutical industry 171
6.7.1.1 Factors promoting water reuse 171
6.7.1.2 Water reuse limitations 171
6.7.2 Water reuse trends 172
6.8 Supply chain analysis 172
6.8.1 Procurement process 172
6.8.1.1 Technology purchasing and outsourcing process 172
6.8.1.2 Operating and maintenance 172
6.8.1.3 Local versus international suppliers 173
6.8.1.4 One-stop shop versus separate technologies 173
6.8.2 Market entry 173
6.8.2.1 Dominance of market players 173
6.8.2.2 New entrants 173
6.8.2.3 Opportunities for new entrants 174
6.9 Market forecast 174
Figure 6.11 Pharmaceutical industry market forecast, 2011-2025 174
Figure 6.12 Pharmaceutical industry, top country markets, 2013-2017 175
6.9.1 Reference and alternate scenarios 175
Figure 6.13 Pharmaceutical industry market forecast by region, 2011-2017: Reference scenario 175
Figure 6.14 Pharmaceutical industry market forecast by region, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario 176

7. Microelectronics 177
7.1 Introduction 177
7.1.1 Microelectronics 177
7.1.2 The semiconductor manufacturing process 177
Figure 7.1 Steps in the semiconductor manufacturing process 177
7.1.3 Manufacturing process trends 178
7.1.3.1 Greater miniaturisation 178
Figure 7.2 The continuing miniaturisation of semiconductor devices 178
Figure 7.3 Capacity of new fabrication plants by line-width, 2000-2011 179xxiv © GWI no copying without permission. Contact ewelsh@globalwaterintel.com
Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse
Figure 7.4 Capacity of new fabrication plants by line-width, 2012-2020 179
7.1.3.2 Greater complexity 179
7.1.3.3 Larger wafer sizes 180
Figure 7.5 Capacity of new fabrication plants by wafer size, 2000-2011 180
Figure 7.6 Capacity of new fabrication plants by wafer size, 2012-2020 180
7.2 Water treatment market drivers in microelectronics 181
Figure 7.7 Planned semiconductor plant locations and water scarcity 181
7.3 Process water requirements 181
7.3.1 Current industry water consumption 182
Figure 7.8 UPW consumption at semiconductor and FPD fabrication plants 182
7.3.2 Industry standards for UPW and treatment for water reuse 182
7.3.2.1 SEMI F63-0211 Guide for ultrapure water used in semiconductor processing 182
7.3.2.2 ASTM D5127 Standard Guide for ultrapure water used in the electronics and semiconductor industries 182
7.3.2.3 Comparison of SEMI F63 Standard and ASTM D5127 Standard 182
7.3.2.4 Future development of UPW standards 182
7.3.2.5 How the standards are used 183
7.3.2.6 Other microelectronics-related standards 183
7.3.3 ITRS roadmap guidelines - future technology trends 183
Figure 7.9 ITRS water consumption: Facilities technology requirements - near-term years 183
7.3.4 Water quality requirements for UPW 183
7.3.4.1 UPW requirements for semiconductor manufacturing 183
Figure 7.10 Major contaminants of concern for UPW production 184
7.3.4.2 PV high purity water standard 184
Figure 7.11 Comparison of SEMI F63 and SEMI PV3 Standard UPW requirements 184
7.4 Desalination technologies for process water 185
7.4.1 Ultrapure water (UPW) technology trends in semiconductor industry 185
Figure 7.12 UPW technology train for the semiconductor and PV industries 185
7.4.1.1 Pretreatment 185
7.4.1.2 Reverse osmosis 186
7.4.1.3 Polishing 186
7.5 Wastewater challenges 186
7.5.1 Semiconductor industry wastewater streams 186
Figure 7.13 Wastewater streams generated in the semiconductor industry 187
7.5.2 Wastewater treatment challenges in microelectronics manufacturing 187
7.5.3 PV industry wastewater characteristics 188
Figure 7.14 PV wastewater streams 188
7.6 Water reuse strategies 188
7.6.1 Reuse opportunities at fabrication plants 188
Figure 7.15 Water reuse opportunities 189
7.6.1.1 The “50% rule” 189
Figure 7.16 Water reuse applications 190
7.6.2 Water reuse trends 190
7.6.3 Water reuse at non-semiconductor facilities 190
7.7 Wastewater treatment and water reuse technologies 190
7.7.1 Wastewater treatment technologies and future developments. 190
Figure 7.17 Wastewater treatment technologies - conventional and advanced 191
7.7.2 Current trends in wastewater treatment in the semiconductor industry 191
7.7.2.1 HF treatment 191
7.7.2.2 Metal-bearing wastewater treatment 191
7.7.2.3 Ammonia treatment 191
7.7.2.4 Caustic and acid wastewater treatment 191
7.7.2.5 Concentrated acids treatment 191
7.7.3 Technology trends 191
7.7.3.1 Resource recovery 191
7.7.4 Greater rate of wastewater treatment on-site 192
7.7.5 Water reuse technologies and trends 192
7.8 Supply chain analysis 192
7.8.1 Market entry opportunities 192
7.8.1.1 Market entry constraints 192
7.8.1.2 Routes to the market 192
7.8.1.3 “Success factors” for market entry 193
7.8.1.4 Upcoming UPW systems market trend 193
7.8.2 Procurement model 193
7.8.3 Whole process stream purchase versus one-stop shop 194
7.8.4 Local versus global suppliers 194
7.8.5 Opportunities for outsourcing op
+44 20 8816 8548

Ask a question about Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse: Ultrapure water, challenging waste streams and improved efficiency

Enter the characters you see in the picture below
Captcha