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Water for Food & Beverage: Opportunities in water efficiency and gaining value from wastewater

Water for Food & Beverage: Opportunities in water efficiency and gaining value from wastewater

Overview

The food and beverage sector is a multi-billion dollar market for water and wastewater treatment technologies. With the largest companies consuming as much water per year as small countries, the global industry uses around 62 km3 per year. That's about as much as the total utility water supply for the Middle East and North Africa combined.

The sheer diversity of the products, processing steps, water and wastewater treatment needs of food and drink companies opens up many ways to access the market. And there are a number of global trends that are creating huge opportunities for water technology companies: the tightening of wastewater quality regulations, the trend towards environmental efficiency, emerging market growth and water scarcity will ensure that capex on water technologies by F&B companies will reach $6bn in 2020.

The stage is set for every player in the market to increase their revenue in this sector. Access is open to all water technology companies, ranging from large global firms to smaller niche technology manufacturers. We interviewed representatives from leading food and beverage companies, food and beverage associations and water technology experts so you can benefit from their experience of how the market operates.

Water for Food & Beverage covers the sub-sectors that are most water intensive, and those that produce highly loaded wastewater streams:
• Dairy
• Brewery
• Fruit and vegetable
• Sugar
• Meat, poultry and fish
• Aquaculture

Primary research

“If food and beverage companies don't follow global best practice in water efficiency, or if they don't clean up their wastewater properly, then their brand can be permanently impaired within days.” Christopher Gasson, Publisher, Global Water Intelligence.

Lead the way in water efficiency and sustainability
Food and beverage companies are more sensitive to consumer concerns about the sustainable use of water and energy than most industries. This creates a growing pressure to meet and surpass environmental goals and charters, with corporate responsibility playing a pivotal role in business development. Water for Food & Beverage highlights the links between efficient water management and improved energy and water consumption. Find out how using the right technology solution can help manufacturers cut down on their process water requirements, promoting efficiency throughout the plant.

Improve wastewater treatment standards
Regulations for wastewater disposal are tightening, putting pressure on food and beverage companies to lessen the biological load in their wastewater streams. Polluters face heavy fines, and the risk of public disapproval if local communities are affected. This report showcases the technologies that will allow food and beverage plants to meet discharge quality standards in a cost-effective way, also opening up opportunities to reuse wastewater as feed water for boilers, equipment cleaning and other ancillary activities.

Generate value from wastewater
There are many prospects for creating value from wastewater, and this report will guide you through the available options. Consider how anaerobic technologies, which produce biogas, can be used in boilers at manufacturing plants, helping to reduce both energy costs and the carbon footprint. Or make emerging approaches part of your long-term outlook, with opportunities in biomass recovery, bioplastics production and microbial fuel cells. This report also shows the potential for generating revenue from wastewater streams through nutrient recovery and biogas.

Who should read this report?

Essential reading for anyone involved with water in the food and beverage sector

Larger water companies: Expand your existing market share, or forge a path into new market sectors. Understand customer processes, and build your technology portfolio so you can offer a complete solution.
Niche water technology providers: Find a route to market and identify the clients that will require more specialised technologies to meet their water management needs. Benefit from advice on how to increase your visibility and successfully build local partnerships in this diverse market.
Food and beverage companies: Discover ways to generate value from your wastewater streams, and create cost-savings through efficient water and wastewater management. Find out which technologies will help cut down on process water requirements, and those that will help you meet discharge quality standards.
Investors and consultants: Research the innovative technologies that can help companies meet water efficiency and environmental sustainability targets. Use our estimated growth forecasts to plan your portfolio of green investments.
Publication information ii
Foreword iii
Exchange rates used in this publication iv
Executive summary v
Global water technology market for food and beverage, 2011 and 2020 v
Market challenges vi
Opportunities vi
Food and beverage industry diagram: full summary ix

1. Introduction to the food and beverage industry 1
1.1 The food and beverage industry 1
1.2 Food and beverage industry subsectors 1
Figure 1.1 Food industry subsectors 2
Figure 1.2 Beverage industry subsectors 3
1.2.1 Food and beverage generic manufacturing steps 3
Figure 1.3 Generic food and beverage processing steps for fruit/vegetables and meat raw materials 4
1.2.1.1 Receipt of raw materials 5
1.2.1.2 Primary grading/screening/processing 5
1.2.1.3 Intermediary storage 5
1.2.1.4 Primary cleaning/washing 5
1.2.1.5 Sorting, grading and inspection 5
1.2.1.6 Product preparation 5
1.2.1.7 Product processing 5
1.2.1.8 Further processing 6
1.2.1.9 Packaging 6
1.3 The role of water in food and beverage plants 6
1.3.1 Water consumption in food and beverage plants 6
Figure 1.4 Water consuming activities in food and beverage plants 7
Figure 1.5 Water consumption in beverage plants 7
Figure 1.6 Water consumption in selected food processing plants 7
Figure 1.7 Water consumption in vegetable and fruit processing plants 8
Figure 1.8 Water consumption in meat processing plants 8
1.3.2 Wastewater characteristics 8
Figure 1.9 Variations in wastewater contaminants 8
Figure 1.10 Discharge limits for wastewater generated by the food and beverage industry 9
Figure 1.11 Wastewater characteristics according to food and beverage subsectors 9
1.4 Manufacturing processes of food and beverage products 10
1.4.1 Dairy subsector 10
Figure 1.12 Wastewater generating activities 10
Figure 1.13 Standardised processing steps for butter and cheese 11
1.4.1.1 Raw material reception 12
1.4.1.2 Clarification, separation and standardisation 12
1.4.1.3 Pasteurisation and cooling of milk products 12
1.4.1.4 Butter production 12
1.4.1.5 Cheese production 12
1.4.2 Brewery subsector 13
Figure 1.14 Processing steps for brewing beer 14
1.4.2.1 Raw materials 14
1.4.2.2 Wort production 15
1.4.2.3 Mash filtration (lautering) 15
1.4.2.4 Wort boiling 15
1.4.2.5 Wort clarification and cooling 15
1.4.2.6 Fermentation and maturation 15
1.4.2.7 Beer processing: filtration 15
1.4.2.8 Beer processing: carbonation 15
1.4.2.9 Pasteurisation 16
1.4.2.10 Packaging 16
1.4.2.11 High gravity brewing 16
1.4.3 Fruit and vegetable subsector 16
Figure 1.15 Fruit and vegetable processing steps 17
1.4.3.1 Reception of fruit and vegetable raw materials 18
1.4.3.2 Temporary storage 18
1.4.3.3 Washing 18
1.4.3.4 Fruit and vegetable sorting 18
1.4.3.5 Skin removal or peeling 18
1.4.3.6 Size reduction 19
1.4.3.7 Blanching 19
Figure 1.16 Blanching temperature and time for selected vegetables 19
1.4.3.8 Cooling 19
1.4.3.9 Canning 19
1.4.3.10 Packaging 20
1.4.4 Sugar subsector 20
Figure 1.17 Processing steps for sugar cane and sugar beets 21
1.4.4.1 Reception of raw materials 22
1.4.4.2 Washing and extraction of cane 22
1.4.4.3 Washing and extraction of beets 22
1.4.4.4 Clarification/purification 22
1.4.4.5 Evaporation and crystallisation 22
1.4.4.6 Sugar refining 23
1.4.4.7 Distillery 23
1.4.5 Meat and poultry subsector: Meat processing plants 23
Figure 1.18 Bovine and porcine processing steps 24
1.4.5.1 Stunning, sticking and bleeding 24
1.4.5.2 Primary processing 25
1.4.5.3 Evisceration and preparation 25
1.4.5.4 Rendering 25
1.4.6 Meat and poultry subsector: Poultry processing plants 25
Figure 1.19 Poultry processing steps 26
1.4.6.1 Pre-processing 27
1.4.6.2 Slaughtering, bleeding and scalding 27
1.4.6.3 Further processing 27
1.4.6.4 Evisceration 27
1.4.6.5 Storing and packaging 27
1.4.6.6 Rendering 27
1.4.7 Fish processing subsector 27
Figure 1.20 Fish processing steps 28
1.4.7.1 Material reception 29
1.4.7.2 Preparation 29
1.4.7.3 Product processing 29
1.4.7.4 Product finalisation 29
1.4.7.5 By-products 30
1.4.8 Vegetable oil subsector 30
Figure 1.21 Vegetable oil processing steps 31
1.4.8.1 Raw material reception 31
1.4.8.2 Extraction 32
1.4.8.3 Palm oil extraction 32
1.4.8.4 Washing, pressing and clarification 32
1.4.8.5 Conditioning 32
1.4.8.6 Degumming 32
1.4.8.7 Refinement 32
1.4.8.8 Modification processes 33
1.5 Aquaculture sector 33
1.5.1 Fish farming 34
1.5.1.1 Intensive systems 34
1.5.1.2 Semi-intensive systems 34
1.5.1.3 Extensive systems 34
1.5.2 Cultivation activities 35
Figure 1.22 Typical production cycle at an aquacultue operation 35
1.5.2.1 Preparation and stocking 35
1.5.2.2 Start feeding 35
1.5.2.3 On-growing 35
1.5.2.4 Harvesting 36
1.5.2.5 Cleaning 36
1.6 Water:product ratios for the food and beverage industry 36
1.6.1 Water consumption in European food manufacturing 36
1.6.2 Water consumption during the processing of meat and fish 36
Figure 1.23 Water used to process 1 kg of a carcass in European slaughterhouses 36
Figure 1.24 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw fish in Scandinavian fisheries 37
Figure 1.25 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw animal by-product material in European countries 37
1.6.3 Water consumption during the processing of fruit and vegetables 37
Figure 1.26 Amount of water used to produce 1 kg of processed fruit and vegetables, by method of preservation 37
Figure 1.27 Amount of water used in the processing of tomatoes in Italy in 2003 38
1.6.4 Water consumption in the dairy industry 38
Figure 1.28 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of dairy products, in selected European countries 38
1.6.5 Water consumption during the production of sugar and starch products 38
Figure 1.29 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of starch 38
Figure 1.30 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of sugar from sugar beet 38
1.6.6 Water consumption in beverage manufacturing 38
Figure 1.31 Average volume of water required to produce 1 kg of beverage, 2009 39
1.6.7 Water consumption in Brazilian food and beverage manufacturing 39
Figure 1.32 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw material, for selected F&B sectors in Brazil 39
Figure 1.33 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of raw material, for selected F&B sectors in Brazil 39
1.6.8 Wastewater from food and beverage manufacturing 40
1.6.8.1 Wastewater from European food and beverage manufacturing 40
1.6.8.2 Wastewater produced from the processing of meat and fish 40
Figure 1.34 Wastewater produced during the processing of 1 kg of carcass, in European countries 40
Figure 1.35 Wastewater produced during the rendering of 1 kg of selected raw materials, in European countries 40
1.6.8.3 Wastewater produced during the manufacturing of dairy products 40
Figure 1.36 Wastewater produced during manufacture of selected dairy products in Scandinavian dairies 40
1.6.8.4 Wastewater produced during the manufacture of vegetable oil products 40
Figure 1.37 Wastewater produced in the production of oil in European countries 41
1.6.8.5 Wastewater produced during the manufacture of starch products 41
Figure 1.38 Wastewater produced during manufacture of starch in Austria from selected sources 41
1.6.8.6 Wastewater from the production of food in the U.S. 41
Figure 1.39 Volume of wastewater produced by the slaughter of selected animals in U.S. slaughterhouses 41
Figure 1.40 Wastewater produced from manufacturing milk products in the U.S. 42
Figure 1.41 Volume of water required to process 1 kg of selected fruits and vegetables in the U.S. 42
1.7 Water volumes for the food and beverage industry 42
1.7.1 Water use in the United States 42
Figure 1.42 Volume of industrial self-supplied water in the U.S., 2000-2005 43
1.7.2 Wastewater discharge in the United States 43
Figure 1.43 Average wastewater output of U.S. F&B manufacturing facilities by sectors, 2010 43
1.7.3 Water use in Australia 44
Figure 1.44 Water use and supply in the Australian F&B and tobacco industry, 2009 44
1.7.4 Water use in the United Kingdom 44
Figure 1.45 Water consumption in the UK F&B / tobacco industries, and % of total industrial consumption 45
1.7.5 An estimate of total water use for the food and beverage industry 45
Figure 1.46 Estimates of global food and beverage water use in 2012 45

2. Drivers for water efficiency 47
2.1 Brand protection 47
2.1.1 The sustainability factor 47
2.1.2 The risk factor 49
2.1.3 Voluntary initiatives 51
2.1.3.1 United Nations CEO Water Mandate 51
2.1.3.2 Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (BIER) 51
2.1.3.3 World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) 52
2.1.3.4 The Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) 52
2.1.3.5 The Water Disclosure Project (CDP Water Disclosure) 52
2.1.3.6 Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) 52
2.1.3.7 ISO International Organisation for Standardisation 52
2.1.3.8 NSF International - The Public Health and Safety Company 53
2.1.3.9 Codex Alimentarius Commission 53
2.2 Water scarcity 53
2.2.1 The limited resource factor 53
2.2.2 The cost factor 55
2.3 Regulations 57
2.3.1 The scarcity factor 57
2.3.2 The regulatory framework 58
2.3.2.1 Water abstraction regulations 58
2.3.2.2 Process water quality standards 59
2.3.2.3 Wastewater discharge standards 60
2.3.2.4 Adoption of universal regulations at plant sites 61
2.4 Regulatory standards 64
2.4.1 Process water quality 64
2.4.2 Industrial wastewater discharge standards 65
2.4.2.1 Australia 65
Figure 2.1 National acceptance guidelines for discharge of F&B industrial waste into sewers 66
2.4.2.2 The European Union 67
Figure 2.2 Requirements for discharge from urban WWTPs to “normal areas” 68
Figure 2.3 Requirements for discharge from urban WWTPs to “sensitive areas” 68
2.4.2.3 United States of America 69
Direct discharges 69
Figure 2.4 Existing effluent guidelines for food and beverage industrial categories 70
Figure 2.5 ELGs for existing sources in the dairy, grain mills and sugar categories, according to BPT 70
Indirect discharges 71

3. Water management and technologies 73
3.1 Water management at food and beverage plants 73
3.1.1 Water balance 73
Figure 3.1 Water balance schematic 74
3.1.2 Food and beverage process water efficiency 74
3.1.2.1 Leaks 74
3.1.2.2 Optimising flow rate 75
3.1.2.3 Process controls 75
3.1.3 Cleaning water efficiency 75
3.1.3.1 Design and layout of processing equipment 75
3.1.3.2 Dry cleaning 75
3.1.3.3 Trigger-operated controls for hoses 75
3.1.3.4 High-pressure cleaning systems 75
3.1.3.5 Clean-in-place (CIP) systems 75
3.1.3.6 Efficient product changeovers 76
3.1.3.7 Crate washers 76
3.1.4 Utility water efficiency 76
3.1.4.1 Cooling tower and boiler blowdown 76
3.1.4.2 Cooling tower operability 76
3.1.4.3 Sealing water equipment 76
3.1.5 Efficiency in ancillary water use 76
3.1.6 Rainwater/stormwater harvesting 76
3.1.7 Water reuse 76
3.1.7.1 Reuse of condensate 77
3.1.7.2 Membrane technologies for water reuse 77
Figure 3.2 Food and beverage industry diagram: technologies and subsectors 79
3.2 Process and utility water technologies 80
Figure 3.3 Technologies used for process water and utility water 80
3.2.1 Screening, clarification, filtration and softening technologies 80
3.2.1.1 Screening 80
3.2.1.2 Clarifiers 80
3.2.1.3 Multimedia filtration 81
Figure 3.4 Multimedia filtration tank 81
3.2.1.4 Water softening 82
3.2.2 Membrane technologies 82
3.2.2.1 Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) 82
3.2.2.2 Nanofiltration (NF) 82
3.2.2.3 Reverse osmosis (RO) 83
3.2.2.4 Ion exchange (IX) 83
3.2.3 Clean-in-place (CIP) technologies 83
3.2.4 Disinfection technologies 84
Figure 3.5 Comparison of disinfectants 84
3.2.4.1 Chlorine 85
3.2.4.2 Chlorine dioxide 85
3.2.4.3 UV radiation 85
3.2.4.4 Sodium hypochlorite 86
Figure 3.6 Electrochemical reactions in an OSG's electrolytic cells 87
3.2.4.5 Ozonation technologies 87
3.2.5 Deionising technologies 87
3.2.5.1 Two-stage deionisation 88
3.2.5.2 Continuous electrodeionisation (CEDI) 88
3.2.6 Multi-technology solutions 88
3.3 Wastewater treatment 89
3.3.1 Screen filter technologies 89
3.3.2 Clarifiers 89
3.3.3 Flotation 89
3.3.4 Chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal 90
3.3.5 Aerobic treatment technologies 90
Figure 3.7 Evaluation of aerobic treatments 90
3.3.5.1 Aerobic treatment units (ATUs) 90
3.3.5.2 Moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) 91
3.3.5.3 Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) 91
Figure 3.8 The five basic phases in SBR systems 92
3.3.5.4 Membrane bioreactors (MBR) 92
Figure 3.9 Externally pressurised cross-flow MBR configuration 93
Figure 3.10 Submerged MBR configuration 93
3.3.5.5 Towards zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technologies 94
3.3.5.6 Anaerobic digester technologies 94
3.3.6 Industry example: Wastewater treatment at a dairy processing plant (Indonesia) 94
Figure 3.11 Raw wastewater characteristics 94
3.4 Water reuse technologies 95
3.4.1 Water softening: Crystallisation pellet reactor 95
3.4.2 Industry example: Water reuse at a pork processing plant (Lamballe, France) 95
Figure 3.12 Increase in plant capacity, 2004-2006 96
3.5 Sludge management 96
3.5.1 Thickening and dewatering technologies 96
3.5.1.1 Mechanical sludge thickening 96
3.5.1.2 Sludge dewatering 96
3.5.2 Sludge stabilisation technologies 97
3.5.2.1 Lime stabilisation 97
3.5.2.2 Chemical stabilisation 97
Figure 3.13 Chemical stabilisation Saphyr™ 97
3.5.3 Thermal hydrolysis and biological treatment 98
3.5.4 Sludge drying technologies 98
3.5.4.1 Thermal drying 98
3.5.4.2 Solar drying 98
3.5.4.3 Hydrothermal oxidation 99
Figure 3.14 Thermal oxidation 99
3.5.4.4 Incineration 100
Figure 3.15 Cross-section of a multiple hearth furnace 100
3.6 Gaining value from wastewater 101
3.6.1 Anaerobic treatment/biogas generating technologies 101
Figure 3.16 Comparison on anaerobic and aerobic treatment 102
3.6.1.1 Continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) 102
3.6.1.2 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) 102
Figure 3.17 The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) 103
3.6.1.3 Expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) 103
3.6.1.4 Internal circulation reactor (IC) 103
3.6.2 Case study: Treatment of Heineken brewery wastewater (UK) 104
Figure 3.18 Discharge limits and biogas volume 104
3.6.2.1 Anaerobic flotation reactor: BIOPAQ®AFR 105
Figure 3.19 Typical influent characteristics 105
3.6.2.2 Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) 105
3.6.3 Biogas 105
3.6.4 Case study: Treatment of sauerkraut wastewater at the Meistratzheim WWTP (France) 106
Figure 3.20 Meistratzheim WWTP upgrade facts 106
Figure 3.21 Technologies used for different processes in the WWTP 106
Figure 3.22 Characteristics of the sauerkraut wastewater 107
Figure 3.23 Different loads of sauerkraut liquid which undergo anaerobic treatment 107
Figure 3.24 The quantity of biogas produced by anaerobic treatment of sludge 107
3.6.5 Nutrient/element recovery technologies 108
3.6.5.1 Nutrient recovery: Fertilisers (Pearl® process) 108
Figure 3.25 Pearl® nutrient recovery process 108
3.6.5.2 Case study: Nutrient recovery process at the Nansemond plant (Virginia, USA) 109
Figure 3.26 Pearl® nutrient recovery process at Nansemond WWTP 109
3.6.6 Element recovery: Bioplastics 110
3.6.6.1 Standard method for bioplastics production 110
3.6.6.2 Wastewater feedstock method for bioplastics production 110
3.6.7 Element recovery: Microbial fuel cells (MFC) 110
3.6.7.1 Electricity generation: Microbial fuel cells (MFC) 111
3.6.7.2 Microbial electrolysis cells/Bioelectrochemically assisted microbial reactor (MEC/BEAMR) process 111
3.7 Technologies for aquaculture 111
Figure 3.27 Aquaculture wastewater technology options 111
3.7.1 Kaldnes™ Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) 112
Figure 3.28 Traditional versus improved cultivation methods 112
3.7.2 RAS treatment technologies 112
3.7.2.1 Intake water treatment 112
3.7.2.2 Water conditioning in flow-through systems 113
3.7.2.3 Wastewater treatment 113
3.7.2.4 Sludge treatment 113

4. Market analysis 115
4.1 Market division / segmentation 115
Figure 4.1 Global food and beverage water technology market by country, 2011 and 2020 115
Figure 4.2 Global food and beverage water technology market by technology, 2011 and 2020 116
4.2 Key and emerging players 116
Figure 4.3 Key and emerging players in the water for food and beverage industry 117
4.3 Regional trends 121
4.3.1 F&B company expansion plans 121
Figure 4.4 Countries mentioned in the expansion plans of 50 leading F&B companies, grouped by region 121
4.3.2 Detailed regional financial information from the largest companies 121
Figure 4.5 Total revenues of major food and beverage companies 2007-2011 121
4.3.2.1 Kraft Foods regional trends 122
Figure 4.6 Kraft Foods % growth in net revenues by region, 2008-2011 122
Figure 4.7 Kraft Foods net revenues and percentage growth by region, 2008-2011 122
4.3.2.2 Campbell Soup Company regional trends 123
Figure 4.8 Campbell Soup Company % growth in net sales by region, 2008-2011 123
Figure 4.9 Campbell Soup Company net sales and % growth by region, 2008-2011 123
4.3.2.3 PepsiCo regional trends 124
Figure 4.10 PepsiCo % growth in net revenues by region, 2008-2011 124
Figure 4.11 PepsiCo net revenues and % growth by region, 2008-2011 124
4.3.2.4 Anheuser-Busch InBev regional trends 125
Figure 4.12 Anheuser-Busch InBev % growth in revenues by region, 2010-2011 125
Figure 4.13 Anheuser-Busch InBev revenues and % growth by region, 2008-2011 125
4.3.2.5 Diageo regional trends 126
Figure 4.14 Diageo % growth in net sales by region, 2008-2011 126
Figure 4.15 Diageo net sales and % growth by region, 2008-2011 126
4.3.2.6 Tyson Foods regional trends 126
4.3.2.7 Nestlé regional trends 127
Figure 4.16 Nestlé % growth in sales by region, 2008-2010 127
Figure 4.17 Nestlé total sales and % growth by region, 2008-2010 127
4.3.2.8 Coca Cola Company regional trends 128
Figure 4.18 Coca-Cola Company % growth in total net revenues by region, 2007-2011 128
Figure 4.19 Coca Cola Company total net revenues and % growth by region, 2007-2011 128
4.3.2.9 Unilever regional trends 129
Figure 4.20 Unilever % growth in turnover by region, 2008-2011 129
Figure 4.21 Unilever turnover and % growth by region, 2008-2011 129
4.4 Market forecast 130
Figure 4.22 Global food and beverage water technology market forecast by country / region, 2009-2020 131
Figure 4.23 Global food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 132
Figure 4.24 Africa food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 133
Figure 4.25 East Asia and Pacific food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 134
Figure 4.26 Latin America and Caribbean food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 135
Figure 4.27 Middle East and North Africa food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 136
Figure 4.28 North America food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 137
Figure 4.29 South Asia food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 138
Figure 4.30 Western Europe food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 139
Figure 4.31 Europe and Central Asia food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020 140
4.5 F&B company sustainability measures 141
4.5.1 Water reuse 141
4.5.1.1 Cleaning 141
4.5.1.2 Cooling 141
4.5.1.3 Irrigation 141
4.5.1.4 Uses for food 141
4.5.2 Energy generation 141
4.5.3 Other water saving strategies 142
4.5.3.1 Water-free technologies 142
4.5.3.2 Water saving technologies 142
4.5.3.3 Water meters 142
4.5.3.4 Harvesting rainwater 142
4.5.3.5 Maintenance 142
4.5.3.6 Employee water awareness 142
4.5.3.7 Sharing best practice 142
4.5.3.8 Understanding water use 142
Figure 4.32 Summary of food and beverage company sustainability plans 143
4.6 Food and beverage company water:product ratios 144
4.6.1 Current water:product ratios 144
Figure 4.33 Food and beverage company water:product ratio, most recent available year 144
4.6.2 Baseline and target water:product ratios 146
Figure 4.34 Food and beverage company water:product ratio, baseline, target and most recent year 146
4.7 Food and beverage company annual water use 147
Figure 4.35 Food and beverage company annual water use, most recent available year (data) 147
Figure 4.36 Food and beverage company annual water use, most recent available year 148
Figure 4.37 Beverage only company annual water use, baseline year and most recent available year 149
Figure 4.38 Food and beverage company annual water use, baseline year and most recent available year 150
4.8 Food and beverage company profiles 151
4.8.1 Anheuser-Busch InBev profile 151
4.8.2 Arla Foods amba profile 151
4.8.3 Bacardi Ltd profile 152
4.8.4 Brown-Forman Corporation profile 152
4.8.5 Campbell Soup Co. profile 152
4.8.6 Cargill Inc. profile 153
4.8.7 Carlsberg Group profile 153
4.8.8 Cola-Cola Co. profile 153
4.8.9 ConAgra Foods, Inc. profile 154
4.8.10 Constellation Brands profile 154
4.8.11 Danone profile 154
4.8.12 Dean Foods profile 155
4.8.13 Diageo profile 155
4.8.14 Dole Food Co. Inc. profile 155
4.8.15 Dr Oetker profile 156
4.8.16 Dr Pepper Snapple Group profile 156
4.8.17 Ferrero profile 156
4.8.18 Friesland Campina profile 156
4.8.19 General Mills profile 157
4.8.20 Grupo Modelo profile 157
4.8.21 Gruppo Campari profile 157
4.8.22 H.J.Heinz Company profile 157
4.8.23 Heineken profile 158
4.8.24 Hershey Co. profile 158
4.8.25 Hormel Foods profile 158
4.8.26 ITO EN Group profile 159
4.8.27 J.M. Smucker Co. profile 159
4.8.28 JBS USA profile 159
4.8.29 Kellogg's profile 159
4.8.30 Kraft Foods profile 159
4.8.31 Maple Leaf Foods profile 160
4.8.32 Mars Inc. profile 160
4.8.33 McCain Foods Ltd profile 160
4.8.34 Mead Johnson profile 161
4.8.35 Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton Group profile 161
4.8.36 Molson Coors profile 161
4.8.37 Nestlé profile 161
4.8.38 PepsiCo profile 162
4.8.39 Pernod Ricard profile 162
4.8.40 Pilgrim's Pride Corp. profile 162
4.8.41 Premier Foods plc profile 163
4.8.42 Red Bull profile 163
4.8.43 SAB Miller profile 163
4.8.44 San Miguel Corporation profile 164
4.8.45 Saputo Inc. profile 164
4.8.46 Sara Lee Corp. profile 164
4.8.47 Smithfield Foods Company profile 164
4.8.48 Theo Muller profile 165
4.8.49 Tyson Foods Inc. profile 165
4.8.50 Unilever Group profile 165
4.8.51 Fomento Economico Mexicano (FEMSA) profile 166

5. Accessing the market 167
5.1 The approach to entering the water for food and beverage market 167
Figure 5.1 Food and beverage industry diagram: market access & opportunities and subsectors 169
5.2 Technologies dominating the water for food and beverage market 177
5.3 Openness of the food and beverage market to new technologies 182
5.3.1 Decision making for installing new technologies 187
5.4 Fully integrated solutions versus separate technologies 189
5.5 Provision of additional services 193
5.6 Market dynamics 195
5.6.1 The players in the water for food and beverage market 195
5.7 Dominance and success of market players 200
5.7.1 Dominance of established water companies 202
5.7.2 Smaller players and local markets 206
5.7.3 Collaborations within the F&B industry 209
5.7.4 Partnership arrangements and agreements 211
5.7.5 Procurement process 213
5.7.6 Market size 214

6. Water for food and beverage market opportunities 217
6.1 Overview of market opportunities 217
6.1.1 Opportunities in water efficiency and sustainability 218
6.1.2 Opportunities in improved wastewater treatment 221
6.1.3 Opportunities in gaining value from wastewater 222
6.1.4 Opportunities in emerging technologies 227
6.1.5 Opportunities in process water 228
6.1.6 Opportunities in water reuse 229
6.2 Market opportunity: Process and utility feedwater 230
6.2.1 Drivers for using water efficient technologies/strategies 231
6.3 Market opportunity: Wastewater treatment 233
6.3.1 Opportunities in wastewater discharge requirements 234
6.3.2 Challenges when working in developing nations 237
6.4 Market opportunity: Water reuse 239
6.4.1 The water reuse trend in the food and beverage industry 239
6.4.2 Factors limiting the adoption of water reuse 242
6.4.3 Water reuse opportunities at plant sites 245
6.4.4 The potential for water reuse in food and beverage products 248
6.5 Market opportunities: Value from wastewater 251
6.5.1 Market opportunities: Biogas generation 251
6.5.1.1 Adoption of the bioenergy market 252
6.5.1.2 Drivers 254
6.5.1.3 Use of biogas at F&B plants 256
6.5.1.4 Limiting factors affecting the use of biogas at plant sites 258
6.5.1.5 Challenges affecting the bioenergy market opportunity 260
6.5.1.6 Food and beverage companies that are customers in this market 262
6.5.1.7 Water technology companies active in the bioenergy market 263
6.5.2 Market opportunity: Nutrient recovery 264
6.5.2.1 Overview of the nutrient recovery market 264
6.5.2.2 The nutrient recovery market trend 266
6.5.2.3 Approach to market entry 269
6.5.2.4 Challenges facing the nutrient recovery market 270
6.5.2.5 Solutions 273
6.5.2.6 Best positioned companies for nutrient recovery opportunities 274
6.5.3 Market opportunity: Element recovery 275
6.5.3.1 Opportunities in bioplastics production 275
6.5.3.2 Opportunities in microbial fuel cells 277
6.5.4 Market opportunity: Energy from biomass 277

Interviewees 279
References 281

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