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2008 Europe - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Baltic Countries

  • Publication Date:January 2009
  • Publisher:BuddeComm
  • Product Type: Report
  • Pages:99
2008 Europe - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Baltic Countries

2008 Europe - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Baltic Countries

BuddeComm's Annual Publication '2008 Europe - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Baltic countries' profiles the Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Referred to as the Baltic tigers following years of strong economic growth, the latest global financial crisis has exposed the fragility of the economic boom. Economic deceleration is expected to continue although this has had the benefit of reducing inflation rates which were among the highest in the EU.

Like most sectors of the economy, the telecoms sector will be impacted in 2009, with lower anticipated demand and spending on products and services and increased funding costs for capital expenditure and/or operating activities. However the essential nature of most telecom services such as voice and to a lesser extent broadband, will cushion most telecom service providers from decreasing consumer spending.

Competition coupled with ongoing user and technological trends will continue to shape the telecoms sector in 2009, particularly in the broadband and mobile markets, both of which are highly penetrated for the region. Despite the reach of copper loop networks, growth in xDSL based broadband connections is struggling to keep up with overall broadband growth as other technology platforms such as fibre and mobile gain popularity. Driving the push into fibre is the need for speed, as competitors seek a superior product to support consumption of high-bandwidth content such as HDTV. Competing mobile operators on the other hand, are on a mission to make broadband personal, leveraging 3G/HSDPA networks to offer affordable mobile broadband access with prepaid buckets of data, often bundled with notebook computers.

This report presents a concise overview of the telecom markets in a small but sophisticated corner of Eastern Europe. Covered in detail are the regulatory frameworks that have shaped the market; major market players; and the key fixed-line, IT, Internet Society, Broadband, Convergence, Digital TV and Mobile markets. Completing the overview is a wide range of statistics on all market sectors as well as scenario-based forecasts of broadband subscriber numbers and 3G take up.

Key highlights:

  • Mobile operators continue to threaten fixed-line incumbents. After many years of enticing voice traffic from fixed to mobile networks, mobile operators are threatening to do the same with broadband, aggressively marketing mobile broadband access plans, often bundled with notebook computers or advanced multimedia phones such as Apple's iPhone 3G. Increased competition between mobile network operators in 2009 is expected to improve the value and subsequently take up of mobile broadband offerings.
  • xDSL's dominance of the broadband market is under threat as operators shift focus to fibre, attracted to the faster speeds on offer, with deployments of both FttH and FttB networks.
  • Lithuania's incumbent, unattached to any mobile operator, is unique in its continued widescale deployment of WiFi hotspots, accounting for over 90% of hotspots within the country.
  • Annual growth rates for DSL is expected to be outstripped by annual growth rates for non-DSL broadband connections during 2009 in all three countries.
  • The region's well established cable TV operators have been busy, upgrading networks to offer broadband as well as launching digital TV and VoIP services. Such activity is expected to continue during 2009 in response to the growing threat posed by broadband TV (IPTV) services on offer by the telco incumbents,
  • Growing broadband penetration is underpinning Internet society development, based on fostering interaction in an efficient, effective and convenient manner. This report offers a range of statistics providing an insight into the next stage of Internet development: online activities by individuals as well as the growth of e-commerce, e-government services by both individuals and businesses.
  • Projecting future growth, this report offers scenario based forecasts to 2018 for both broadband subscriptions and 3G mobile take up, two key growth areas for telecom markets in the Baltic region.

Baltic mobile subscribers and penetration rate - 2008
Country Mobile subscribers Penetration

  • Estonia 1,606,000 123%
  • Latvia 2,544,000 113%
  • Lithuania 4,964,000 139%

(Source: BuddeComm)

Paul Kwon
December 2008

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

The following notes provide some background to our scenario forecasting methodology:

  • This report includes what we term scenario forecasts. By describing long-range scenarios we identify a band within which we expect market growth to occur. The associated text describes what we see as the most likely growth trend within this band.
  • The projections shown in the tables in this report are based on our own historical information, as well as on telecommunication sector statistics from official and non-official, national and international sources. We assume a possible deviation of 15-20% around this data.
  • All statistics for GDP, revenue, etc are shown in US$, in order to maintain consistency within and between markets. At the same time we acknowledge that this can introduce some irregularities.

Presenting a comprehensive overview, this report is essential reading for those seeking information on trends and developments in telecommunications, mobile, Internet, broadband, digital TV and converging media including VoIP, VoD and IPTV developments. Subjects include:

  • Market and industry analyses, trends and developments;
  • Facts, figures and statistics;
  • Industry and regulatory issues;
  • Research, Marketing, Benchmarking;
  • Major Players, Revenues, Subscribers, Prepaid subscriptions;
  • VoIP, ADSL2+, FttH, FttB, digital TV, IPTV, DTTV, 3G, HSDPA, mobile broadband.
  • 1. ESTONIA
    • 1.1 Key statistics
    • 1.2 Telecommunications market
      • 1.2.1 Overview of Estonia's telecom market
    • 1.3 Regulatory environment
      • 1.3.1 Background
        • 1.3.1.1 EU Regulatory Framework
      • 1.3.2 Regulatory authority
        • 1.3.2.1 Estonian Competition Authority
      • 1.3.3 Telecoms sector liberalisation in Estonia
        • 1.3.3.1 Privatisation
        • 1.3.3.2 Interconnect
        • 1.3.3.3 Access
        • 1.3.3.4 Carrier selection and Carrier PreSelection (CPS)
        • 1.3.3.5 Number portability
    • 1.4 Fixed network operators in Estonia
      • 1.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 1.4.2 Eesti Telekom (Elion)
    • 1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 1.5.1 National telecom network
        • 1.5.1.1 Elion
        • 1.5.1.2 Alternative operators
      • 1.5.2 Telecoms & IT
    • 1.6 Wholesaling
    • 1.7 Internet market
      • 1.7.1 Overview
        • 1.7.1.1 Internet statistics
      • 1.7.2 Estonia's emerging Internet society
        • 1.7.2.1 Estonian Information Society Strategy 2013
        • 1.7.2.2 Legislation
        • 1.7.2.3 E-government
        • 1.7.2.3.1 Infrastructure
        • 1.7.2.3.1.1 Electronic ID (eID) card
        • 1.7.2.3.1.2 EEBone
        • 1.7.2.4 E-commerce
    • 1.8 Broadband market
      • 1.8.1 Overview
        • 1.8.1.1 Broadband statistics
      • 1.8.2 Cable modems
      • 1.8.3 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • 1.8.4 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH) networks
      • 1.8.5 Wireless broadband
        • 1.8.5.1 WiFi
        • 1.8.5.2 WiMAX
    • 1.9 Convergence
      • 1.9.1 VoIP
        • 1.9.1.1 Elion
        • 1.9.1.2 Skype
      • 1.9.2 Triple play
      • 1.9.3 Overview of broadcasting market
      • 1.9.4 Digital TV
        • 1.9.4.1 Broadband TV (IPTV)
        • 1.9.4.2 Cable TV (CATV)
        • 1.9.4.2.1 Major operators
        • 1.9.4.3 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
        • 1.9.4.4 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
    • 1.10 Mobile communications
      • 1.10.1 Overview of Estonia's mobile market
        • 1.10.1.1 Mobile statistics
      • 1.10.2 Regulatory issues
        • 1.10.2.1 Third Generation (3G) licences
        • 1.10.2.2 Fourth 3G licence
        • 1.10.2.3 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
        • 1.10.2.4 EU roaming tariffs
        • 1.10.2.5 Interconnection tariffs
      • 1.10.3 Mobile technologies
        • 1.10.3.1 Digital
        • 1.10.3.2 3G mobile
      • 1.10.4 Major mobile operators
        • 1.10.4.1 Eesti Mobiltelefon (EMT)
        • 1.10.4.2 Radiolinja Eesti/Elisa
        • 1.10.4.3 Tele2 Eesti
        • 1.10.4.4 Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs)
      • 1.10.5 Mobile voice services
        • 1.10.5.1 Prepaid cards
      • 1.10.6 Mobile data services
        • 1.10.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
        • 1.10.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
        • 1.10.6.3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
        • 1.10.6.4 Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
        • 1.10.6.5 Mobile TV
        • 1.10.6.6 Mobile broadband
      • 1.10.7 Mobile content and applications
        • 1.10.7.1 Location-based services
        • 1.10.7.2 M-commerce
        • 1.10.7.3 Telemetry solutions
    • 1.11 Forecasts
      • 1.11.1 Forecasts broadband subscribers to 2018
        • 1.11.1.1 Scenario 1 higher broadband subscriber growth
        • 1.11.1.2 Scenario 2 lower broadband subscriber growth
      • 1.11.2 Forecasts 3G subscribers to 2018
  • 2. LATVIA
    • 2.1 Key statistics
    • 2.2 Telecommunications market
      • 2.2.1 Overview of Latvia's telecom market
    • 2.3 Regulatory environment
      • 2.3.1 Background
      • 2.3.2 Regulatory authority
        • 2.3.2.1 Public Utilities Commission (SPRK)
      • 2.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Latvia
        • 2.3.3.1 Privatisation
        • 2.3.3.2 Interconnect
        • 2.3.3.3 Access
        • 2.3.3.4 Carrier selection and Carrier PreSelection (CPS)
        • 2.3.3.5 Number portability
    • 2.4 Fixed network operators in Latvia
      • 2.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 2.4.2 Lattelecom
      • 2.4.3 Norby Telecom
    • 2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 2.5.1 National telecom network
      • 2.5.2 Telecoms & IT
    • 2.6 Internet market
      • 2.6.1 Overview
        • 2.6.1.1 Internet statistics
      • 2.6.2 Latvia's emerging Internet society
        • 2.6.2.1 E-government
    • 2.7 Broadband market
      • 2.7.1 Overview
        • 2.7.1.1 Broadband statistics
      • 2.7.2 Cable modems
      • 2.7.3 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
        • 2.7.3.1 ADSL2+
      • 2.7.4 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH) networks
      • 2.7.5 Wireless broadband
        • 2.7.5.1 WiMAX
        • 2.7.5.2 WiFi
    • 2.8 Convergence
      • 2.8.1 Overview
      • 2.8.2 Triple play models
      • 2.8.3 Digital TV
        • 2.8.3.1 Broadband TV (IPTV)
        • 2.8.3.2 Cable TV (CATV)
        • 2.8.3.2.1 Baltkom
        • 2.8.3.2.2 Izzi
        • 2.8.3.3 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
        • 2.8.3.4 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
    • 2.9 Mobile communications
      • 2.9.1 Overview of Latvia's mobile market
        • 2.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
      • 2.9.2 Regulatory issues
        • 2.9.2.1 CDMA licence awarded
        • 2.9.2.2 Third Generation (3G) licences
        • 2.9.2.3 EU roaming tariffs
      • 2.9.3 Mobile technologies
        • 2.9.3.1 Digital
        • 2.9.3.2 3G mobile
      • 2.9.4 Major mobile operators
        • 2.9.4.1 Latvia Mobilais Telefons (LMT)
        • 2.9.4.2 Tele2
        • 2.9.4.3 Telekom Baltija/Triatel
        • 2.9.4.4 Bite
        • 2.9.4.5 Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO)
      • 2.9.5 Mobile voice services
        • 2.9.5.1 Prepaid cards
      • 2.9.6 Mobile data services
        • 2.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
        • 2.9.6.2 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
        • 2.9.6.3 Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
        • 2.9.6.4 Broadband wireless data service (1x EV-DO)
        • 2.9.6.5 Mobile TV
        • 2.9.6.6 BlackBerry
        • 2.9.6.7 Mobile broadband
      • 2.9.7 Mobile content and applications
    • 2.10 Forecasts
      • 2.10.1 Forecasts broadband subscribers to 2018
        • 2.10.1.1 Scenario 1 higher broadband subscriber growth
        • 2.10.1.2 Scenario 2 lower broadband subscriber growth
        • 2.10.1.3 3G subscriber growth forecasts to 2018
  • 3. LITHUANIA
    • 3.1 Key statistics
    • 3.2 Telecommunications market
      • 3.2.1 Overview of Lithuania's telecom market
    • 3.3 Regulatory environment
      • 3.3.1 Background
      • 3.3.2 Regulatory authority
        • 3.3.2.1 Communications Regulatory Authority (RRT)
      • 3.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Lithuania
        • 3.3.3.1 Privatisation
        • 3.3.3.2 Interconnect
        • 3.3.3.3 Access
        • 3.3.3.4 Carrier selection and Carrier PreSelection (CPS)
        • 3.3.3.5 Number portability
    • 3.4 Fixed network operators in Lithuania
      • 3.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 3.4.2 Lietuvos Telekomas (TEO)
    • 3.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 3.5.1 National telecom network
        • 3.5.1.1 TEO
        • 3.5.1.2 Alternative operators
      • 3.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 3.5.3 Telecoms & IT
    • 3.6 Internet market
      • 3.6.1 Overview
        • 3.6.1.1 Internet statistics
      • 3.6.2 Lithuania's emerging Internet society
        • 3.6.2.1 E-business
        • 3.6.2.2 E-government
        • 3.6.2.2.1 Infrastructure
    • 3.7 Broadband market
      • 3.7.1 Overview
        • 3.7.1.1 Broadband statistics
      • 3.7.2 Cable modems
      • 3.7.3 Asymmetric Digital subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • 3.7.4 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH)
      • 3.7.5 Wireless broadband
        • 3.7.5.1 WiFi
        • 3.7.5.2 WiMAX
    • 3.8 Convergence
      • 3.8.1 Overview
      • 3.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
      • 3.8.3 Digital TV
        • 3.8.3.1 Broadband TV (IPTV)
        • 3.8.3.2 Cable TV (CATV)
        • 3.8.3.3 Satellite-based digital pay TV developments
        • 3.8.3.4 Digital Terrestrial TV (DTTV)
    • 3.9 Mobile communications
      • 3.9.1 Overview of Lithuania's mobile market
        • 3.9.1.1 Mobile statistics
      • 3.9.2 Regulatory issues
        • 3.9.2.1 GSM licences
        • 3.9.2.2 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
        • 3.9.2.3 Third GSM licence awarded
        • 3.9.2.4 EU roaming tariffs
      • 3.9.3 Mobile technologies
        • 3.9.3.1 Third Generation (3G)
      • 3.9.4 Major mobile operators
        • 3.9.4.1 Omnitel
        • 3.9.4.2 Bite
        • 3.9.4.3 Tele2
      • 3.9.5 Mobile voice services
        • 3.9.5.1 Prepaid cards
      • 3.9.6 Mobile data services
        • 3.9.6.1 Short Message Service (SMS)
        • 3.9.6.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
        • 3.9.6.3 General Packet Radio Services (GPRS)
        • 3.9.6.4 Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
        • 3.9.6.5 Mobile broadband
        • 3.9.6.6 Mobile TV
        • 3.9.6.7 BlackBerry
      • 3.9.7 Mobile content and applications
    • 3.10 Forecasts
      • 3.10.1 Forecasts broadband subscribers to 2018
        • 3.10.1.1 Scenario 1 higher broadband subscriber growth
        • 3.10.1.2 Scenario 2 slower broadband subscriber growth
      • 3.10.2 Forecasts 3G subscribers to 2018
  • 4. GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS
  • LIST OF TABLES
    • Table number: on page number:
    • Table 1 Country statistics Estonia 2008
    • Table 2 Telephone network statistics January 2008
    • Table 3 Internet user statistics January 2008
    • Table 4 Internet subscriber statistics January 2008
    • Table 5 Broadband statistics January 2008
    • Table 6 Mobile statistics June 2008
    • Table 7 National telecommunications authority
    • Table 8 Total telecom sector revenue and annual change 2004 - 2007
    • Table 9 Elion interconnection rates 2005 - 2007
    • Table 10 Local loop unbundling and share access costs 2006 - 2007
    • Table 11 Eesti Telekom group financial data 2006 - 2007
    • Table 12 Elion fixed-line subscribers & outgoing call minutes 2005 - 2007
    • Table 13 Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2007
    • Table 14 Elion PSTN/ISDN subscribers 2002 - 2007
    • Table 15 Workplace PC usage by employer size and industry type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 16 Workplace network usage by network type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 17 Elion wholesale broadband subscribers 2004 - 2007
    • Table 18 Internet users, subscribers and penetration rates 1998 - 2007
    • Table 19 Online activities by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 20 Take up of e-government services by businesses 2004 - 2007
    • Table 21 Take up of e-government services by individuals 2004 - 2007
    • Table 22 Proportion of businesses purchasing online 2004 - 2007
    • Table 23 Items purchased online by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 24 Broadband subscribers and penetration 2001 - 2007
    • Table 25 Broadband subscribers by access type 2007
    • Table 26 Broadband market share by ISP 2004 - 2007
    • Table 27 Elion broadband subscribers 2003 - 2007
    • Table 28 Total Cable TV subscribers 2004 - 2007
    • Table 29 Elion IPTV subscribers 2006 - 2008
    • Table 30 Starman operational data 2005 - 2008
    • Table 31 Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change June 2008
    • Table 32 Mobile subscribers and penetration rate 1998 - 2008
    • Table 33 Ratio of prepaid to postpaid subscribers 2000 - 2007
    • Table 34 EMT prepaid subscribers 2002 - 2008
    • Table 35 SMS messages sent per operator 2004 - 2007
    • Table 36 MMS messages sent per operator 2004 - 2007
    • Table 37 GPRS users per operator 2004 - 2007
    • Table 38 EMT mobile broadband subscribers 2006 - 2008
    • Table 39 Forecast broadband subscribers higher market growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 40 Forecast broadband subscriber lower market growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 41 Forecast 3G subscribers higher growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 42 Forecast 3G subscribers lower growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 43 Country statistics Latvia 2008
    • Table 44 Telephone network statistics 2007
    • Table 45 Internet user statistics 2007
    • Table 46 Broadband statistics 2007
    • Table 47 Mobile statistics June 2008
    • Table 48 National telecommunications authority
    • Table 49 Interconnection rates 2006 - 2007
    • Table 50 Local loop unbundling and share access costs 2006 - 2007
    • Table 51 Access agreements with Lattelecom by type 2006 - 2008
    • Table 52 Lattelecom Group financial data 2003 - 2007
    • Table 53 Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995; 1997; 1999 - 2007
    • Table 54 Lattelecom PSTN / ISDN subscribers & network digitalisation rate 2002 - 2007
    • Table 55 Workplace PC usage by employer size and industry type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 56 Workplace network usage by network type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 57 Internet users, subscribers and penetration rates 1997; 1999 - 2007
    • Table 58 Proportion of businesses purchasing online 2005 - 2007
    • Table 59 Online trading as percentage of total turnover 2005 - 2007
    • Table 60 Items purchased online by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 61 Online activities by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 62 Take up of e-government services by businesses 2004 - 2007
    • Table 63 Take up of e-government services by individuals 2004 - 2007
    • Table 64 Broadband subscribers by access type 2007
    • Table 65 Broadband subscribers and penetration rate 2001 - 2007
    • Table 66 Lattelecom broadband subscribers 2002 - 2007
    • Table 67 Lattelecom ADSL subscribers 2001 - 2007
    • Table 68 Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change June 2008
    • Table 69 Mobile subscribers and penetration 1995; 1997; 1999 - 2008
    • Table 70 LMT prepaid subscribers 2002 - 2007
    • Table 71 Forecast broadband subscribers higher market growth scenario 2009 - 2013; 2018
    • Table 72 Forecast broadband subscribers lower market growth scenario 2009 - 2013; 2018
    • Table 73 Forecast 3G subscriber penetrations higher market growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 74 Forecast 3G subscriber penetrations lower market growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 75 Country statistics Lithuania 2008
    • Table 76 Telecom revenue and investment statistics 2007
    • Table 77 Telephone network statistics 2007
    • Table 78 Internet user statistics 2007
    • Table 79 Internet subscriber statistics 2006
    • Table 80 Broadband statistics 2007
    • Table 81 Mobile statistics June 2008
    • Table 82 National telecommunications authority
    • Table 83 Telecom revenue by service 2007
    • Table 84 TEO interconnection rates 2006 - 2007
    • Table 85 Access agreements with TEO by type 2006 - 2008
    • Table 86 Cost of Local loop unbundling and share access 2006 - 2007
    • Table 87 Market share of fixed-line alternative operators 2003 - 2008
    • Table 88 TEO financial data 2006 - 2007
    • Table 89 TEO revenue breakdown by service 2006 - 2007
    • Table 90 Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2007
    • Table 91 TEO fixed-line subscribers & outgoing call minutes 2005 - 2007
    • Table 92 Workplace network usage by network type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 93 Workplace PC usage by employer size and industry type 2004 - 2007
    • Table 94 Internet users and penetration rate 1996 - 2007
    • Table 95 Online activities by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 96 Proportion of businesses purchasing online 2004 - 2007
    • Table 97 Online trading as percentage of total turnover 2005 - 2007
    • Table 98 Items purchased online by individuals 2005 - 2007
    • Table 99 Take up of e-government services by businesses 2004 - 2007
    • Table 100 Take up of e-government services by individuals 2004 - 2007
    • Table 101 Broadband subscribers by access type 2007
    • Table 102 Broadband subscribers and penetration rate 2001 - 2007
    • Table 103 TEO broadband subscribers 2005 - 2007
    • Table 104 TEO ADSL subscribers 2004 - 2007
    • Table 105 Wireless broadband subscribers by platform September 2008
    • Table 106 Cable TV and MMDS subscribers 1997 - 2007
    • Table 107 Market share of cable TV and MMDS service providers 2007
    • Table 108 Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change June 2008
    • Table 109 Mobile subscribers and penetration rate 1998 - 2008
    • Table 110 Omnitel MOU, postpaid, prepaid ARPU and churn rate 2005 - 2007
    • Table 111 Ratio of prepaid to postpaid subscribers 2002 - 2008
    • Table 112 Omnitel prepaid subscribers 2002 - 2007
    • Table 113 Total SMS and MMS messages sent 2004 - 2008
    • Table 114 GPRS, EDGE & UMTS subscribers 2004 - 2008
    • Table 115 Forecast broadband subscribers higher market growth scenario 2009 - 2013; 2018
    • Table 116 Forecast broadband subscribers lower market growth scenario 2009 - 2013; 2018
    • Table 117 Forecast 3G subscribers higher growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
    • Table 118 Forecast 3G subscribers lower growth scenario 2008 - 2012; 2018
  • LIST OF EXHIBITS
    • Exhibit number: on page number:
    • Exhibit 1 The EU regulatory framework for communications
    • Exhibit 2 Access, the local loop and unbundling an overview
    • Exhibit 3 The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) annual E-readiness criteria
    • Exhibit 4 Overview of media convergence
    • Exhibit 5 BlackBerry services defined
    • Exhibit 6 The EU regulatory framework for communications
    • Exhibit 7 Access, the local loop and unbundling an overview
    • Exhibit 8 2G spectrum awarded in Lithuania
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