Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets

Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets

Report ID: 2212016
Use this report to:
- Evaluate the effect of strategic factors such as technology-driven change and industry consolidation on the antifungal drugs market.
- Investigate the current market dynamics and factors influencing the future growth opportunities in the antifungal drugs market.
- Review the principal competitors, their product portfolio, patents and revenues by individual product line where available.

Highlights
- The global market for antifungal drugs was valued at $13.1 billion in 2016. The market should reach $16.1 billion by 2021, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.2% from 2016 to 2021.
- The global market for prescription antifungal drugs was valued at $7.0 billion in 2016. The market should reach $8.3 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 3.5% from 2016 to 2021.
- The global market for over the counter (OTC) antifungal drugs was valued at $6.1 billion in 2016. The market should reach $7.8 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 5.0% from 2016 to 2021.

INTRODUCTION TO THE REPORT
The goal of BCC Research in conducting this study was to determine the current status of the global human antifungal market and assess its growth potential over the five-year period from 2016 to 2021. This report covers approved human therapeutics, with a heavy focus on therapeutics in early development. These new molecular and biological entities are from traditional pharmaceutical sources, naturally derived synthetic chemicals and biological sources as well as the “herbal natural folk medicine” marketplace. If an approved or well-known medicine is being studied in combination with another molecular entity, it is considered a new therapy and often has been included for review. New drug and patent applications are presented as the study focuses on new methods of drug administration, drug clinical trials, and discovery and development.

It should be noted that there is a strong emphasis on early research due to the critical need for new and more effective medicines; hence, BCC Research is including a section of medicines intended for human utilization that are in clinical testing as well as information on new and novel in vitro therapies. Greater than 98% of medicines at the preclinical level are terminated prior to their utilization in humans, and the research in this area is vast.

We are limiting this research to therapies that depict a positive result or that represent a very rare and novel approach worthy of further review from R&D groups. Our key objective in this report is to present an in-depth analysis of the current human antifungal market and to explore its future direction. In the last five years there has
been a decrease in the number of patent applications filed in this area. Between 1990 and 1999, there were six U.S. patents granted – evidence of the evolution of drug resistance and an increasing mortality rate.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY
Fungi are highly resistant microbiological eukaryotic microorganisms. In other words, they are becoming drug-resistant to the approved compounds and some therapies later in clinical development. The therapies are designed to eradicate these fungi through the various antifungal mechanisms of action, such as disrupting reproductive capabilities, destroying cell walls or modifying fungal DNA and cell functioning. It is a given fact that infestations in humans, animals, plants and the environment are on the rise, with many having lethal consequences in both the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised.

That being the case, BCC Research was particularly interested in examining the antifungal market growth of developing products depicting efficacy. We are including data regarding the market shift for those products that are now relegated to over-the-counter (OTC) status that previously had only been provided by prescription; moreover, we will identify new antifungal research, development, new drug applications and novel approaches to the market.

Previously, BCC Research examined the antifungal market in its 2003 report, PHM029A The Market for Antifungal Drugs, in PHM029B Global Markets for Antifungal Agents in PHM029C Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets and in the 2014 report PHM029E Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets.

Due to the rapidly changing market, BCC Research chose to re-examine the marketplace through another analysis and project its new growth potential. Additionally, PHM029A focused only on human fungal diseases and associated antifungals; PHM029B incorporated the marketplace for antifungals in the veterinary, agricultural and environmental industries; and PHM029C and PHM029D focused on human therapeutics with an intensive focus on human therapeutics in the developmental pipeline. PHM029E is an update of PHM029D.

SCOPE

The aim of this report is to initially conduct a review of the antifungal drugs currently available, the issues facing the use of antifungal drugs and review some of the latest developments of new and innovative antifungal drugs, their technologies, and their intended clinical applications.

The key objective was also to conduct and provide an analysis of the market value, growth rates, market shares, market development as well as examining the market dynamics and market factors influencing the growth and development of this market. This report also looks at the challenges and potential threats facing the industry, and the factors influencing the market shares of the major market suppliers as well as smaller indigenous manufactures in local markets.

The emphasis of this report is to provide the reader with:
- A detailed analysis of the revenues and forecasts for the global antifungal drugs market with a further more detailed analysis and forecast of the revenues for the global market sub-divided by major market sub-segments by geographic region and finally by selected country.
- A detailed analysis of the global market share together with a further more detailed analysis of the market share by geographic regions and finally by selected country.

In addition this analysis provides a:
- Detailed review of the current products, their indications and availability for all the market segments identified.
- Profile of the individual markets sub-segments within the major market segments analyzed and the distinguishing features of each of the market sub-segments.
- Review of the major market opportunities through the recognition of specific high-growth and emerging market opportunities.
- Brief description of the historical development for each of the major market segments.
- Profile of the leading suppliers of antifungal drugs together with related information about specific products.

The study will allow the reader to:
- Evaluate the effect of strategic factors such as technology-driven change and industry consolidation for the antifungal drug market.
- Investigate the current market dynamics that are driving change in the antifungal drug market.
- Assess future growth opportunities in the antifungal drug market.
- Review the main products in each sector and plan a product entry strategy in line with the strengths and weaknesses of the competition.
- Utilize the report to help realize an individual company’s position in the market place and to provide insight into the future of the market and the opportunities that exist.

METHODOLOGY
The data collection and forecasting methods used in the preparation of this report are broadly divided into three methods.

PRIMARY DATA AND INFORMATION GATHERING
Data on individual product and company sales was gathered through interviews with manufacturers, end users, suppliers, distributors, and other relevant sources. These interviews typically include marketing managers, sales managers, distributor managers and owners, sales representatives and managers responsible for research and development (R&D). In addition, interviews were conducted with senior managers amongst competing companies to determine the strategic direction and focus on the technological advances being made and the sales and marketing policies being adopted.

Representatives of the leading suppliers included Ferrer Internacional S.A., Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Astellas Pharma Inc., Galderma Pharma SA Galderma SA, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited, Sigma-Tau Pharma-ceuticals, Inc., TEVA Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd., Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. and Dartmouth Pharmaceuticals.

To ensure that the data derived from competitive interviews was accurate, the information was verified and corroborated by other interviews and by secondary sources, such as articles in the trade press, press releases, annual reports, online databases and government reports.

SECONDARY DATA AND INFORMATION GATHERING
Information was obtained from numerous secondary data sources, including statistics provided by the CDC, WHO, FDA, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAOUN), the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Phytopathological Society, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), the Generic Pharmaceutical Association (GPhA), the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) and the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA).

While these are believed to be the best secondary sources of data for various fungal diseases, the estimation of trends from this data is complicated by periodic changes in reporting and classification methods. In addition to the use of corporate annual and quarterly reports, data was obtained from security offering prospectuses, Forms 10-K and 10-Q, and product catalogs and price lists. This data was used along with other sources of data on company revenues (investment analysts’ reports, Reuter’s, Dun &
Bradstreet, the CorpTech Directory, and personal communications from executives of various companies) to develop historic and current estimates of market revenues. Prices used in projections of market revenues are average prices paid by the end-user for the products and are derived.

MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS AND MARKET FORECAST PREDICTION
Information and data, including estimates on market values, growth rates and market share data, were gathered through interviews with the competitors in the market. Great care was taken to avoid bias and untruths through developing a good relationship on the telephone and by using carefully worded questions that cross-verify themselves. The answers from the respondents were cross verified with answers from other employees and owners of the same company as well as from other manufacturers. Annual reports and the trade press also confirmed that the data collected were in the correct range.

The data gathered was incorporated into proprietary computer forecasting and market share analysis models. The forecast model was used to derive market estimates for future years. It incorporates a rate factor, which helps determine the speed with which the market develops, which is similar to that observed for markets for other medical products and is adjusted to match historic data for the market under analysis.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
INTRODUCTION TO THE REPORT 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 2
SCOPE 3
METHODOLOGY 4
PRIMARY DATA AND INFORMATION GATHERING 4
SECONDARY DATA AND INFORMATION GATHERING 5
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS AND MARKET FORECAST PREDICTION 5
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 6

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
MARKET SEGMENTATION 10
GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY MARKET SEGMENT 10
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE A GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE B GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 12

CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO THE GLOBAL ANTIFUNGAL DRUG MARKET 14
SCOPE OF APPLICATIONS: HUMAN HEALTHCARE 14
PRIMARY FUNGAL INFECTIONS 15
TABLE 1 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 16
OPPORTUNISTIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS 17
HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 17
SELECTION OF STATISTICAL DATA ON FUNGAL INFECTIONS 18
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL BURDEN OF HIV-RELATED CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS (ESTIMATED YEARLY CASES) 19
FUNGAL INFECTION OF THE NAILS 20
TABLE 2 STATISTICS OF THE 10
MOST SIGNIFICANT INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS 21
RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING FUNGAL INFECTIONS 23
TABLE 3 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 24
FUNGAL SPECIES THAT CAUSE INFECTION IN HUMANS 25
CANDIDIASIS 25
Some Basic Facts about Candida Infections 25
Cutaneous Candidiasis 28
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis 28
GI Tract Candidiasis 28
Respiratory Tract Candidiasis 29
Genitourinary Tract Candidiasis 29
Hepatosplenic Candidiasis 29
Systemic Candidiasis 29
CANDIDEMIA 29
Disseminated Candidiasis 30
ASPERGILLOSIS 31
BLASTOMYCOSIS 32
COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS 33
CRYPTOCOCCOSIS 34
DERMATOPHYTOSIS 35
HISTOPLASMOSIS 36
ONYCHOMYCOSIS 37
PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS 38
PSEUDALLESCHERIASIS 39
SPOROTRICHOSIS 39
ZYGOMYCOSIS 40
TABLE 4 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COMMON FUNGAL DISEASES 41
RARE FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND DISORDERS 42
TABLE 5 MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF FUNGI AND PSEUDOFUNGI INFECTIONS OF UNUSUAL OR UNCERTAIN ETIOLOGY 44
LITERATURE REVIEW 45

CHAPTER 4 COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI 48
MOLDS AND THE HUMAN ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THEM 48
WHY ENVIRONMENTAL MOLD IS A UNIQUE PROBLEM 49
HEALTH RISKS DUE TO ENVIRONMENT FUNGI AND MOLD 49
TABLE 6 COMMON HEALTH SYMPTOMS BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND MOLDS 51
TABLE 7 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND MOLDS 51
TABLE 8 COMMON SOURCE LOCATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 52
ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 52
ALTERNARIA 52
Literature Review 52
ASPERGILLUS 53
Literature Review 53
CLADOSPORIUM 54
Literature Review 54
PENICILLIUM 55
Literature Review 55
EUROTIUM 56
Literature Review 56
RHIZOPUS 56
Literature Review 56
MUCOR 57
Literature Review 57
GEOTRICHUM 58
Literature Review 58
FUSARIUM 58
Literature Review 59
STACHYBOTRYS 59
Literature Review 59
WALLEMIA 59
Literature Review 60
TRICHOTHECIUM 60
Literature Review 60
SCOPULARIOPSIS BREVICAULIS 60
Literature Review 60
SCYTALIDIUM DIMIDIATUM 61
Literature Review 61
TRICHODERMA 62
Literature Review 62
PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII 62
Literature Review 63

CHAPTER 5 ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 65
ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 65
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL REGION 65
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 66
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY REGION, 2015 - 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 66
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 67
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 68
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI FUNGAL AGENTS 69
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 69
TIMELINE OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT 70
FIGURE 3 TIMELINE OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT 70
SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 71
POLYENES ANTIBIOTICS 71
TABLE 12 PATENTS FOR AMPHOTERICIN B AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 71
AZOLES 72
THE TRIAZOLE ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 73
Fluconazole 73
TABLE 13 APPROVED FLUCONAZOLE PRESCRIPTION PRODUCTS 73
Itraconazole 74
TABLE 14 PATENTS FOR ITRACONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 75
Voriconazole 75
TABLE 15 PATENTS FOR VORICONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 76
TABLE 16 APPROVED VORICONAZOLE PRESCRIPTION PRODUCTS 76
Posaconazole 76
TABLE 17 PATENTS FOR POSACONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 78
THE IMIDAZOLES ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 78
Ketoconazole 78
TABLE 18 PATENTS FOR KETOCONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 79
Miconazole 79
TABLE 19 APPROVED MICONAZOLE OTC PRODUCTS 80
Clotrimazole 80
TABLE 20 INTERNATIONAL BRAND NAMES FOR CLOTRIMAZOLE 81
TABLE 21 APPROVED GENERIC PRESCRIPTION VERIONS OF CLOTRIMAZOLE 81
ECHINOCANDINS 82
CASPOFUNGIN 82
TABLE 22 PATENTS FOR CASPOFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 82
Micafungin 83
TABLE 23 PATENTS FOR MICAFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 83
Anidulafungin 83
TABLE 24 PATENTS FOR ANIDULAFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 84
ANTIMETABOLITE: FLUCYTOSINE (5-FC) 84
OTHER SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 85
CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS 85
MANNOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS 85
SPHINGOLIPID SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS 86
TOPICAL ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 86
TOPICAL POLYENE ANTIBIOTICS 86
Nystatin 86
Hamycin 86
Natamycin (pimaricin) 86
Filipin 87
AZOLES-IMIDAZOLE 87
Econazole 87
Butoconazole 87
Oxiconazole 87
Sulconazole 88
Fenticonazole 88
Isoconazole 88
Bifonazole (Mycospor) 88
Tioconazole 88
Terconazole 88
OTHERS 89

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY: GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 92
INTRODUCTION 92
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 92
GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 92
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 93
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012 - 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 93
GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL REGION 94
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY REGION, 2015 (%) 94
NORTH AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 95
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 6 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
EUROPE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 97
TABLE 29 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 30 EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 7 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, 2012 - 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 99
TABLE 31 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 32 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 100
FIGURE 8 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, 2012 - 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 100
LATIN AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 101
TABLE 33 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 34 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
FIGURE 9 LATIN AMERICA FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012 - 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 103
TABLE 35 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 36 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 10 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104

CHAPTER 7 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 107
REGULATORY AND LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS 107
UNITED STATES 107
Investigational New Drug (IND) Application 107
New Drug Application (NDA) 107
Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) 108
OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) ANTIFUNGAL DRUG PRODUCTS 108
New Drug Application (NDA) Process 108
OTC Drug Monograph System 108
CANADA 109
MARKET DYNAMICS 111
MARKET DRIVERS 111
Emerging Pipeline of New and Innovative Antifungal Drugs 111
Spread of Fungal Disease Caused by Widespread Use of Broad Spectrum Antibiotics 112
Increasing Number of People with Weakened Immune Systems 112
The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) 113
MARKET RESTRAINTS 113
Increasing Resistance of Fungi to Antifungal Drugs 113
Increased Popularity of Traditional Medicines and Alternative Treatments to Control Fungus 114
Allergic Reaction to some Types of Antifungal Drugs such as Azoles which Cause Anaphylaxis 115
Impact of the Patient Protection and the Affordable Care Act of 2010 on the U.S. Antifungal Drug Market 115
Growth and Development of the Generic Antifungal Drugs Market 115
Lack of Funding and Development of New and Innovative Antifungal Drug Classes 115
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 116
NORTH AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 116
TABLE 37 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 117
FIGURE 11 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 117
NORTH AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 118
TABLE 38 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 118
FIGURE 12 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL SEGMENT, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 118
NORTH AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY 119
FIGURE 13 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 119
UNITED STATES: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 120
TABLE 39 UNITED STATES MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 40 UNITED STATES MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
CANADA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 122
TABLE 41 CANADA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 42 CANADA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 123
NORTH AMERICA: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 123
TABLE 43 NORTH AMERICA MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 124

CHAPTER 8 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 126
REGULATORY AND LEGISATIVE REQUIREMENTS: EUROPE 126
OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) ANTIFUNGAL DRUG PRODUCTS 127
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 127
MARKET DYNAMICS 129
MARKET DRIVERS 129
Changing Epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Europe 129
Growing Aging Population in Europe 130
Increased Immunocompromised Population in Europe 130
Europe has Increasing Prevalence of Fungal Resistance 130
MARKET RESTRAINTS 131
Austerity Measures have been Introduced Throughout Europe 131
Growth and Development of the Generic Antifungal Drugs Market 131
Increased Competitive Product Pricing and Mandatory Tendering Regarded as a Major Market Restraint 131
Major Challenges to the Development of New Antifungal Drugs 132
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 132
EUROPE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 132
TABLE 44 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 133
FIGURE 14 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, 212-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 133
EUROPE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 134
TABLE 45 EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
FIGURE 15 EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 134
EUROPE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY 135
FIGURE 16 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 136
FRANCE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 136
TABLE 46 FRANCE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
TABLE 47 FRANCE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
GERMANY: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 138
TABLE 48 GERMANY MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 49 GERMANY MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
ITALY: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 139
TABLE 50 ITALY MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 51 ITALY MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 140
SPAIN: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 140
TABLE 52 SPAIN MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 53 SPAIN MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
UNITED KINGDOM: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 141
TABLE 54 UNITED KINGDOM MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 55 UNITED KINGDOM MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 142
REST OF EUROPE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 142
TABLE 56 REST OF EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 57 REST OF EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 143
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 143
EUROPE: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 143
TABLE 58 EUROPE MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, 2015 144

CHAPTER 9 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 146
JAPAN 146
REGULATORY AND LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS 146
MARKETING AUTHORIZATION SYSTEM 146
Pharmaceutical Reimbursement Approval Process in Japan 147
FIGURE 17 JAPAN DRUG FUNDING/REIMBURSEMENT APPROVAL PROCESS 147
CHINA 149
OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 149
FIGURE 18 THE CHINESE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 150
Healthcare Reforms 150
The New Rural Co-operative Medical Care System (NRCMCS) 150
The Urban Residents Healthcare Insurance Scheme 151
Healthcare Institutions 151
TABLE 59 NUMBER OF HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS ACCORDING TO OWNERSHIP IN CHINA, 2010 152
HOSPITAL RESOURCES 152
TABLE 60 TOTAL NUMBER OF HOSPITALS BY RANKING CHINA, 2010 153
Pharmaceutical Regulatory and Legislative Developments: China 153
INDIA 157
OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 157
National Level 157
State Level 158
Regional Level 158
District Level 158
Sub-Divisional/Taluka Level 158
Community Level 158
Primary Health Center (PHC) level 159
Sub Health Center (SHC) level 159
TABLE 61 OVERVIEW OF HEALTHCARE IN INDIA 159
Hospital Resources 160
Population Statistics 161
Pharmaceutical Regulatory and Legislative Developments: India 162
SOUTH KOREA 163
REGULATORY AND LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS 163
Pharmaceutical Regulatory and Legislative Developments: South Korea 164
Pharmaceutical Reimbursement: South Korea 164
MARKET DYNAMICS 165
MARKET DRIVERS 165
Increasing Resistance of Fungi to Antifungal Drugs 165
Increased Popularity of Traditional Medicines and Alternative Treatments to Control Fungus 165
Growth and Development of Generic Drugs Market in Japan 166
Westernized Lifestyle Increases Incidence of IFIs in the Asia-Pacific Region 166
Growth in the Indian Market 166
MARKET RESTRAINTS 168
China 168
India 169
Japan 170
Banning of Oral Formulations of Ketoconazole 170
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 171
ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 171
TABLE 62 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 171
FIGURE 19 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 172
ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 172
TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 173
FIGURE 20 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL SEGMENT, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 173
ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY 174
FIGURE 21 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 174
CHINA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 175
TABLE 64 CHINA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 65 CHINA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 175
INDIA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 176
TABLE 66 INDIA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 177
TABLE 67 INDIA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 177
JAPAN: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 177
TABLE 68 JAPAN MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
TABLE 69 JAPAN MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
SOUTH KOREA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 179
TABLE 70 SOUTH KOREA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
TABLE 71 SOUTH KOREA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
TAIWAN: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 180
TABLE 72 TAIWAN MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
TABLE 73 TAIWAN MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
OTHER ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 181
TABLE 74 OTHER ASIA-PACIFIC MARKETS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TABLE 75 OTHER ASIA-PACIFIC MARKETS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 182
ASIA-PACIFIC: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 182
TABLE 76 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 184

CHAPTER 10 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 186
BRAZIL 186
BACKGROUND 186
REGULATORY AND LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS 187
MARKET ENTRY AND REIMBURSEMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS: BRAZIL 188
ARGENTINA 189
BACKGROUND 189
Government-funded Public Health Sector 189
Social Health Insurance Sector 190
Private Sector 191
Regulatory and Legislative Requirements 191
FIGURE 22 ARGENTINA: REGULATORY DRUG APPROVAL PROCESS 192
MEXICO 193
LEGISLATION AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING MEDICAL DEVICES IN MEXICO 194
Health Insurance Structure Mexico 194
MARKET DYNAMICS 195
MARKET DRIVERS 195
Growth and Development of the Pharmaceutical Market in Central and Latin America 195
Government Support to Boost Brazil Healthcare Sector 196
Increased Burden of Fungal Infections in Central and Latin America 197
Introduction of Tax Funded Universal Health Coverage throughout Latin America 197
MARKET RESTRAINTS 198
Challenges Associated with Local Business Practices and Cultural Conditions in Brazil 198
Issues Associated with Lack of Public Funding, a Weak Healthcare Infrastructure, and a Lack of Affordability in Latin America 198
Pricing Issues 199
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 199
LATIN AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 199
TABLE 77 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 200
FIGURE 23 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 200
LATIN AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 201
TABLE 78 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 201
FIGURE 24 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL SEGMENT, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 201
LATIN AMERICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY 202
FIGURE 25 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 203
ARGENTINA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 203
TABLE 79 ARGENTINA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 204
TABLE 80 ARGENTINA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 205
BRAZIL: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 205
TABLE 81 BRAZIL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 206
TABLE 82 BRAZIL MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 206
CHILE: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 207
TABLE 83 CHILE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 207
TABLE 84 CHILE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 207
MEXICO: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 208
TABLE 85 MEXICO MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 209
TABLE 86 MEXICO MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 209
REST OF LATIN AMERICA (ROLA): MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 210
TABLE 87 REST OF LATIN AMERICA (ROLA) MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 210
TABLE 88 REST OF LATIN AMERICA (ROLA) MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 210
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 211
LATIN AMERICA: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 211
TABLE 89 LATIN AMERICA: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 212

CHAPTER 11 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 214
INTRODUCTION 214
SOUTH AFRICA 214
REGIONAL REGULATIONS, LEGISLATION AND REIMBURSEMENT: MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA 214
MEDICAL DEVICE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS: SOUTH AFRICA 214
HEALTH INSURANCE STRUCTURE: SOUTH AFRICA 215
REIMBURSEMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS: SOUTH AFRICA 216
SAUDI ARABIA 216
THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 217
PRIMARY HEALTHCARE SERVICES 217
SECONDARY AND TERTIARY HEALTHCARE SERVICES 218
FIGURE 26 CURRENT STRUCTURE OF THE HEALTHCARE SECTORS IN SAUDI ARABIA 2012 218
FIGURE 27 NUMBER OF HOSPITALS IN SAUDI, BY TYPE, 2012 218
THE PRIVATE HEALTHCARE SECTOR 219
PHARMACEUTICAL REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 219
HEALTH INSURANCE STRUCTURE 220
MARKET DYNAMICS 221
MARKET DRIVERS 221
Growth of Fungal Infections in Countries Affected by AIDS 221
The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic 221
Fungal Toxins are Poisoning Africa: The Invisible Epidemic 222
Substantial Financial Support for Healthcare in Saudi Arabia 222
South Africa's Political Stability and Improved Economic Outlook Helps Support Growth in the Healthcare Market 222
MARKET RESTRAINTS 223
Limited Infrastructure Capacity 223
Inherent Political and Economic Issues Constrain the Provision of Healthcare in Africa 223
Poor Distribution Structure and Networks in Africa 223
MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 223
MIDDLE/EAST/AFRICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 223
TABLE 90 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 224
FIGURE 28 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, 2012-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 224
MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL MARKET SEGMENTS FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS 225
TABLE 91 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 226
FIGURE 29 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA: MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY INDIVIDUAL SEGMENT, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 226
MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS BY INDIVIDUAL REGION 227
FIGURE 30 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY INDIVIDUAL REGION, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 227
MIDDLE EAST: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 227
TABLE 92 MIDDLE EAST MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 228
TABLE 93 MIDDLE EAST MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 229
AFRICA: MARKET REVENUE ANALYSIS 229
TABLE 94 AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 229
TABLE 95 AFRICA: MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 230
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 230
MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA: MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 230
TABLE 96 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET SHARE FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 231

CHAPTER 12 COMPANY PROFILES 234
MANUFACTURERS OF PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS 234
ANACOR PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 234
ASTELLAS PHARMA INC. 235
BAYER HEALTHCARE 236
DR. REDDY'S LABORATORIES LTD. 237
ENZON PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 238
FERRER INTERNACIONAL S.A. 239
GALDERMA PHARMA S.A. GALDERMA S.A. 239
GILEAD SCIENCES, INC. 240
GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED 241
JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICALS INC. (JOHNSON AND JOHNSON) 242
MERCK 242
TABLE 97 ANNUAL REVENUES OF MAJOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUG (MERCK) ($ MILLIONS) 244
MERZ PHARMA GMBH & CO. KGAA 244
MYLAN PHARMACEUTICALS INC. (MP LABORATORIES (MAURITIUS) LTD.) 245
NOVARTIS HOLDING AG 246
PFIZER INC. 246
TABLE 98 ANNUAL REVENUES OF MAJOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUG (PFIZER) ($ MILLIONS) 248
SANOFI 248
SIGMA-TAU PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 249
TARO PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES LTD. 249
TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRIES LTD. 250
VALEANT PHARMACEUTICALS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 251
FIGURE 31 PROGRESSION OF SALES OF JUBLIA ($ MILLIONS) 252
OTC ANTIFUNGAL MANUFACTURERS 253
PHARMACEUTICAL OTC MARKET 253
ALVA-AMCO PHARMACAL COS. INC. 253
TABLE 99 MAJOR HUMAN OTC ANTIFUNGAL MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 254
BLAINE LABS 254
DARTMOUTH PHARMACEUTICALS 255
KRAMER CONSUMER HEALTHCARE 255
MCNEIL CONSUMER HEALTHCARE 255
MOBERG PHARMA AB 256
PEDINOL, (A DIVISION OF VALEANT PHARMACEUTICALS) 256
PERRIGO COMPANY PLC 256
STIEFEL LABORATORIES, INC. 257
TARMAC PRODUCTS INC. (AXARA PHARMACEUTICAL) 257
ALTERNATIVE OTC MANUFACTURERS 258
TABLE 100 COMMONLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE ANTIFUNGAL PRODUCTS 258
MAJOR ALTERNATIVE OTC MANUFACTURER PROFILES 258
CRYSTAL STAR HERBAL NUTRITION 258
ENZYMEDICA 259
FOREST HERBS RESEARCH LTD. 259
GARDEN OF LIFE 260
KING BIO 260
LIFE EXTENSION NUTRITION CENTER 260
MICHAEL'S NATUROPATHIC PROGRAMS 261
NATURE'S PLUS 261
NOW FOODS 261
NUTRITION NOW 262
PROSYMBIOTICS 262
PURE ESSENCE LABORATORIES 262
RAINBOW LIGHT 263
RENEW LIFE 263
SOLARAY 263
VITANICA 264

CHAPTER 13 APPENDIXES 266 TABLE 101 COMPANY ADDRESSES AND CONTACT DETAILS 266

CHAPTER 14 GOVERNMENT REGULATORY AGENCIES AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 276
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS 276
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) 276
TABLE 102 SELECTED ANTIFUNGAL WARNING LETTERS FOR THE HUMAN SEGMENT FROM THE FDA TO MANUFACTURERS, 2005-2016 277
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) 281
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) 283
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 283
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 283
MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ASSOCIATIONS 283
AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS 283
OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS 284

CHAPTER 15 COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS USED IN THIS REPORT 286

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 10
TABLE 1 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 16
TABLE 2 STATISTICS OF THE 10 MOST SIGNIFICANT INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS 21
TABLE 3 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 24
TABLE 4 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COMMON FUNGAL DISEASES 41
TABLE 5 MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF FUNGI AND PSEUDOFUNGI INFECTIONS OF UNUSUAL OR UNCERTAIN ETIOLOGY 44
TABLE 6 COMMON HEALTH SYMPTOMS BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND MOLDS 51
TABLE 7 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND MOLDS 51
TABLE 8 COMMON SOURCE LOCATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 52
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 68
TABLE 12 PATENTS FOR AMPHOTERICIN B AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 71
TABLE 13 APPROVED FLUCONAZOLE PRESCRIPTION PRODUCTS 73
TABLE 14 PATENTS FOR ITRACONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 75
TABLE 15 PATENTS FOR VORICONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 76
TABLE 16 APPROVED VORICONAZOLE PRESCRIPTION PRODUCTS 76
TABLE 17 PATENTS FOR POSACONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 78
TABLE 18 PATENTS FOR KETOCONAZOLE AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 79
TABLE 19 APPROVED MICONAZOLE OTC PRODUCTS 80
TABLE 20 INTERNATIONAL BRAND NAMES FOR CLOTRIMAZOLE 81
TABLE 21 APPROVED GENERIC PRESCRIPTION VERIONS OF CLOTRIMAZOLE 81
TABLE 22 PATENTS FOR CASPOFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 82
TABLE 23 PATENTS FOR MICAFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 83
TABLE 24 PATENTS FOR ANIDULAFUNGIN AND ESTIMATED EXPIRY DATES 84
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 29 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 30 EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 31 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 32 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 33 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 34 LATIN AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 35 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 36 MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 37 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 117
TABLE 38 NORTH AMERICA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 39 UNITED STATES MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 40 UNITED STATES MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 41 CANADA MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 42 CANADA MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 43 NORTH AMERICA MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY COMPANY, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 124
TABLE 44 EUROPE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 45 EUROPE MARKET FOR PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 46 FRANCE MARKET FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS, BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
Country=World Industry=OTC ParentIndustry=Pharmaceutical Date=201703 Topic=MarketReport Publisher=BCCResearch Price=6000