The vaccine adjuvants market was valued at approximately USD 665.86 million in 2020, and it is expected to witness a revenue of USD 1478.32 million in 2026, with a CAGR of 13.37% over the forecast period, 2021-2026.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, as the import and export activities have been restricted due to the lockdown, it is expected to impact the market studied for a short period of time due to shortage and irregular supply of products. However, this may allow local manufacturers to increase their presence in the market. Supply disruption and product shortages have been observed in several countries due to the temporary lockdowns of manufacturing sites. According to a research article in Nature Reviews Immunology 2020, aluminum-based vaccine adjuvants offer a glide path to induce high levels of neutralizing antibody, which is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone of the protection afforded by COVID-19 vaccines. Additionally, in May 2020, GSK intended to produce 1 billion doses of its pandemic vaccine adjuvant system in 2021 to support the development of multiple adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to significantly impact the studied market growth positively.
The propelling factors for the growth of the vaccine adjuvants market include the unmet needs for vaccines against certain diseases, expanding government recommendations for immunizations, technological innovations, and increasing use of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines.
Across the world, various governmental organizations are promoting and raising awareness regarding immunization against various diseases, like anthrax, BCG, hepatitis, HPV, influenza, varicella, smallpox, and other conditions. In 2019, the US government allocated USD 290 million in foreign aid for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI, now called GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance) and USD 226 million for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to support child vaccine campaigns abroad. Such initiations from the government regarding immunization in the country increase the use of vaccine adjuvants and have a positive impact on the market.
The adjuvant market is gaining a boost from the increasing use of recombinant subunit vaccines. As usage is increasing, the demand for various adjuvants is expanding. Over the coming years, more developments are expected to take place, increasing the need for adjuvants. The market is also expected to grow at a moderate rate, primarily fueled by the increasing adoption of biologics and biosimilars and rising R&D in vaccines across the world.
Toxicity is the single-most crucial impediment while introducing most of the adjuvants for human use. Toxicity may also increase the financial burden on market players during the development and manufacturing phases. Thus, the negative impacts of the toxicity of adjuvants on vaccine manufacturing cost and safety profiles of vaccines are hindering the growth of the market.
Key Market Trends
The Mineral Salt-based Adjuvants Segment is Expected to Witness the Highest CAGR During the Forecast Period
The mineral salt-based adjuvants segment is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period. Alum-based vaccine adjuvants are the most commonly and most widely used adjuvants for human vaccines. Aluminum salts include aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, and aluminum hydroxyphosphate. Aluminum-based salts are also being used for research purposes to increase the efficacy of vaccines. Apart from alum, salts of calcium, iron, and zirconium have also been used regularly as alternatives to alum salt. Calcium phosphate has been used regularly for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio, yellow fever, and BCG vaccines. It adsorbs soluble antigens and presents them in a particulate form to the immune system. According to the research article published in 2020, the developments in mineral salt-based adjuvants are in progress to enhance the adjuvant activity of aluminum adjuvants, which include the use of nano-aluminum adjuvants for improved absorption of antigen.
Additionally, in June 2020, Clover Biopharmaceuticals AUS Pty Ltd initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial for COVID-19 with SCB-2019 vaccine plus Alum adjuvant to assess safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of SCB-2019 at multiple dose levels, administered as two injections intramuscularly in healthy subjects. Thus, the ongoing research activities and extensive advantages of mineral salt-based adjuvants in the vaccine, especially for the development of vaccines against COVID-19, are expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period.
North America Holds a Significant Share in the Market During the Forecast Period
North America is expected to observe tremendous growth in the studied market over the forecast period. The major factors driving the vaccine adjuvants market’s growth in the North American region are the presence of key market players, availability of advanced technologies, and the increasing expenditure on R&D for vaccines.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates, around 16 diseases are now preventable as a result of childhood vaccines, and the routine immunization of American children born between 1994-2018 has prevented more than 419 million illnesses, 26.8 million hospitalizations, and 936,000 early deaths.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adjuvants such as aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) + aluminum salt, oil-in-water emulsions composed of squalene, MPL, and QS-21 (a natural compound from Chilean soapbark tree combined in a liposomal formulation), and cytosine phosphoguanine (CpG) are currently used in vaccines such as DtaP (Daptacel, Infanrix), Hep A (Havrix, Vaqta), Hep B (Engerix-B, Recombivax), HPV (Gardasil 9), Pneumococcal (Prevnar 13), Cervarix, Fluad, Shingrix, and Heplisav-B in the United States. Furthermore, there has been a growing interest in the adjuvant technology for the development of vaccines against COVID-19, and this scenario is expected to drive the studied market growth in the region during the pandemic.
Additionally, according to the National Clinical Trials (NCT) Registry, as of September 21, 2020, in the United States, there are approximately 500 vaccine clinical trials under development, which is expected to have a positive impact on the market studied because these adjuvants are effective in enhancing or activating the immune system. Thus, the ongoing clinical trials related to vaccine development and the high research activities in the United States are expected to drive the studied market growth in North America over the forecast period.
The vaccine adjuvants market is moderately consolidated and consists of many major players. Companies such as Adjuvatis, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Croda International PLC, Merck KGaA, and Novavax Inc. are the key players. The major companies have conducted product launches, approvals, acquisitions, and collaborations for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants, thereby building a Competitive Landscape in the market. For instance, in April 2020, GlaxoSmithKline PLC collaborated with Sanofi to develop an adjuvanted vaccine for COVID-19. Also, in the coming years, few other players are expected to enter the market owing to the high scope of expansion in the product portfolio globally.
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