1 INTRODUCTION 16
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 16
1.2 MARKET DEFINITION 16
1.3 MARKET SCOPE 17
1.3.1 PHA MARKET SEGMENTATION 17
1.3.2 YEARS CONSIDERED FOR THE STUDY 17
1.4 CURRENCY 18
1.5 UNIT CONSIDERED 18
1.6 STAKEHOLDERS 18

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19
2.1 RESEARCH DATA 19
2.1.1 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESEARCH (VOLUME MARKET) 19
2.1.2 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESEARCH (VALUE MARKET) 19
2.1.3 MARKET CALCULATION, BY APPLICATION 20
2.2 FORECAST NUMBER CALCULATION 20
2.3 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 21
2.3.1 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 21
2.3.2 TOP-DOWN APPROACH 21
2.3.3 SECONDARY DATA 22
2.3.4 PRIMARY DATA 22
2.3.4.1 Breakdown of primary interviews 22
2.3.5 KEY INDUSTRY INSIGHTS 23
2.4 ASSUMPTIONS 24

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 25

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS 30
4.1 SIGNIFICANT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PHA MARKET 30
4.2 PHA MARKET, BY REGION 30
4.3 EUROPE: PHA MARKET, BY COUNTRY AND TYPE, 2018 31
4.4 PHA MARKET, BY APPLICATION 31
4.5 PHA MARKET ATTRACTIVENESS: BY MAJOR COUNTRIES 32
4.6 PHA MARKET, BY TYPE 32

5 MARKET OVERVIEW 33
5.1 INTRODUCTION 33
5.1.1 EVOLUTION OF PHA 33
5.2 MARKET DYNAMICS 34
5.2.1 DRIVERS 34
5.2.1.1 Positive attitude of governments toward green procurement policies 34
5.2.1.2 Vast availability of renewable and cost-effective raw materials 36
5.2.1.3 Biodegradability driving the consumption 36
5.2.1.4 Increasing concerns for human health and safety 37
5.2.2 RESTRAINTS 40
5.2.2.1 Higher price compared to conventional polymers 40
5.2.2.2 Performance issues 40
5.2.3 OPPORTUNITIES 40
5.2.3.1 Increasing scope in end-use segments 40
5.2.3.2 Emergence of new raw materials 41
5.2.3.3 Potential for cost reduction through the economy of scale 41
5.2.3.4 Growth opportunities in APAC 42
5.2.4 CHALLENGES 42
5.2.4.1 Manufacturing technology still in its initial phase 42
5.2.4.2 Under-utilization of PHA manufacturing plants 42
5.2.4.3 Expensive and complex production process 43
5.3 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS 44
5.3.1 THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES 44
5.3.2 THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS 45
5.3.3 BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS 45
5.3.4 BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS 45
5.3.5 INTENSITY OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY 45
5.4 TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW 46
5.4.1 COMMERCIALIZED TECHNOLOGIES 47
5.4.2 PHA PRODUCTION IN BIO-REFINERIES 48
5.4.3 YET TO BE COMMERCIALIZED 49
5.4.4 OTHER POSSIBILITIES 51

6 SOURCES AND PROCESSES OF PHA PRODUCTION 52
6.1 GENERAL PRODUCTION PROCESS 52
6.2 SUGAR SUBSTRATE OR CARBOHYDRATES FROM PLANTS 52
6.3 TRIACYLGLYCEROLS 53
6.4 HYDROCARBONS 54
6.5 STRAIN SELECTION 54
6.6 BIO-PROCESS AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESS 56
6.6.1 FERMENTATION PROCESS 56
6.6.1.1 Discontinuous Process 56
6.6.1.1.1 Batch process 56
6.6.1.1.2 Fed-batch process 56
6.6.1.1.3 Fed-batch process with cell recycling process 56
6.6.1.1.4 Repeated fed-batch 56
6.6.1.2 Continuous Process 56
6.6.1.2.1 Continuous fed-batch process 56
6.6.1.2.2 One-stage chemostat 56
6.6.1.2.3 Two-stage chemostat 57
6.6.1.2.4 Multi-stage chemostat 57
6.6.2 EXTRACTION PROCESS 57

7 PRODUCTION CAPACITY ANALYSIS 58

8 PHA PATENT ANALYSIS 62

9 PHA MARKET, BY TYPE 65
9.1 INTRODUCTION 66
9.2 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH 67
9.2.1 POLYHYDROXYVALERATE (PHV) 68
9.2.1.1 PHV polymers can form single crystals with lamellar 68
9.2.2 P (4HB-CO-3HB) 68
9.2.2.1 Ratio of 4HB and 3HB decides the properties of co-polymer 68
9.2.3 P (3HB-CO-3HV) 68
9.2.3.1 High amount of HV fraction can make polymers more elastic 68
9.2.4 OTHERS 68
9.3 MEDIUM CHAIN LENGTH 69
9.3.1 P (HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-HYDROXYOCTANOATE) 69
9.3.1.1 Nodax is the most common PHA, which is manufactured by Danimer Scientific 69
9.3.2 P (3HB-CO-3HV-CO-4HB) 69
9.3.2.1 P (3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) is suited for medical applications, owing to higher mechanical strength 69
9.3.3 OTHERS 70

10 PHA MARKET, BY PRODUCTION METHOD 71
10.1 INTRODUCTION 72

11 PHA MARKET, BY APPLICATION 74
11.1 INTRODUCTION 75
11.2 PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES 77
11.2.1 PACKAGING 77
11.2.1.1 Rigid packaging 77
11.2.1.1.1 Rigid packaging segment will be highly impacted by PHA 77
11.2.1.2 Flexible packaging 77
11.2.1.2.1 PHA is expected to replace petroleum-based plastics in flexible packaging 77
11.2.1.3 Others 78
11.2.1.3.1 Loose-fill 78
11.2.1.3.2 Compost bags 78
11.2.2 FOOD SERVICES 78
11.2.2.1 Cups 78
11.2.2.1.1 Biodegradable disposable cups made of PHA can help reduce plastic wastes 78
11.2.2.2 Trays 78
11.2.2.2.1 Sustainable plastic trays can be made from PHA- based plastics 78
11.2.2.3 Others 79
11.2.2.3.1 Containers 79
11.2.2.3.2 Jars 79
11.3 BIOMEDICAL 80
11.3.1 SUTURES 80
11.3.1.1 Biodegradable sutures with high tensile strength can be manufactured from PHA 80
11.3.2 DRUG RELEASE 80
11.3.2.1 Biocompatibility of PHA-based plastics is suitable for drug carrier application 80
11.3.3 OTHERS 81
11.4 AGRICULTURE 82
11.4.1 MULCH FILMS 82
11.4.1.1 PHA-based mulch films allow farmers to directly plow fields 82
11.4.2 PLANT POTS 82
11.4.2.1 Plant pots made of PHA can help plant growth in the initial stages 82
11.4.3 OTHERS 82
11.4.3.1 Bins 82
11.4.3.2 Chutes 82
11.4.3.3 Hoppers 82
11.5 OTHERS 84
11.5.1 WASTEWATER TREATMENT 84
11.5.2 COSMETICS 84
11.5.3 CHEMICAL ADDITIVES 84
11.5.4 3D PRINTING 84

12 PHA MARKET, BY REGION 86
12.1 INTRODUCTION 87
12.2 NORTH AMERICA 90
12.2.1 US 95
12.2.1.1 Presence of strict regulations regarding plastic production, use,
and disposal is driving the market 95
12.2.2 CANADA 96
12.2.2.1 Proposed ban on single-use plastics by 2021 is expected to influence the market, positively 96
12.2.3 MEXICO 96
12.2.3.1 Government initiatives and international investments are creating growth opportunities for PHA manufacturers in the country 96
12.3 EUROPE 97
12.3.1 GERMANY 102
12.3.1.1 The country has one of the most advanced infrastructures in the region for solid waste management 102
12.3.2 UK 104
12.3.2.1 Government’s aim to achieve a zero-waste economy is likely to boost the market 104
12.3.3 FRANCE 104
12.3.3.1 Government’s initiatives for the development of a bio-based economy is promising for the market 104
12.3.4 ITALY 105
12.3.4.1 Italy is one of the major consumers of bio-based polymers in Europe 105
12.3.5 REST OF EUROPE 106
12.4 APAC 106
12.4.1 CHINA 113
12.4.1.1 The market in the country is characterized by the presence of global and local PHA manufacturers 113
12.4.2 JAPAN 114
12.4.2.1 Several associations, including Japan Bioplastics Association,
are involved in the popularization of biomass-based plastics and biodegradable plastics 114
12.4.3 INDIA 115
12.4.3.1 The Indian PHA market is gaining traction at a slow rate 115
12.4.4 MALAYSIA 115
12.4.4.1 Malaysia has a fully automated PHA bioplastics plant, which produces biodegradable plastic materials from palm oil 115
12.4.5 SOUTH KOREA 116
12.4.5.1 South Korea is one of the pioneering APAC countries in the bioplastic and biodegradable plastic industry 116
12.4.6 REST OF APAC 116
12.5 ROW 117
12.5.1 SOUTH AMERICA 120
12.5.2 MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA 121

13 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 122
13.1 OVERVIEW 122
13.2 COMPETITIVE LEADERSHIP MAPPING, 2018 122
13.2.1 VISIONARY LEADERS 122
13.2.2 DYNAMIC DIFFERENTIATORS 122
13.2.3 INNOVATORS 122
13.2.4 EMERGING COMPANIES 122
13.3 STRENGTH OF PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 124
13.4 BUSINESS STRATEGY EXCELLENCE 124
13.5 KEY MARKET PLAYERS 126
13.6 COMPETITIVE BENCHMARKING 126
13.7 COMPETITIVE SITUATION AND TRENDS 127
13.7.1 COLLABORATIONS, PARTNERSHIPS, CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS 127
13.7.2 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES 128
13.7.3 EXPANSIONS 128

14 COMPANY PROFILES 129
(Business overview, Products offered, Recent developments, SWOT analysis & MnM View)*
14.1 DANIMER SCIENTIFIC 129
14.2 SHENZHEN ECOMANN BIOTECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. 131
14.3 NEWLIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 133
14.4 KANEKA CORPORATION 135
14.5 TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIALS CO., LTD. 137
14.6 BIO-ON SPA 139
14.7 RWDC INDUSTRIES 140
14.8 BOCHEMIE 141
14.9 BIOMER 142
14.10 POLYFERM CANADA, INC. 143
*Details on Business overview, Products offered, Recent developments, SWOT analysis & MnM View might not be captured in case of unlisted companies.
14.11 OTHER PLAYERS 144
14.11.1 TEPHA INC. 144
14.11.2 BLUEPHA CO., LTD. 144
14.11.3 FULL CYCLE BIOPLASTICS 144
14.11.4 CJ CHEILJEDANG CORP. 144
14.11.5 YEILD10 BIOSCIENCE 144
14.11.6 GENECIS BIOINDUSTRIES INC. 144
14.11.7 TERRAVERDAE BIOWORKS IN 144
14.11.8 MANGO MATERIALS 145
14.11.9 EARTHBI 145

15 APPENDIX 146
15.1 INSIGHTS FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS 146
15.2 DISCUSSION GUIDE 146
15.3 KNOWLEDGE STORE: MARKETSANDMARKETS SUBSCRIPTION PORTAL 149
15.4 AVAILABLE CUSTOMIZATIONS 151
15.5 RELATED REPORTS 151
15.6 AUTHOR DETAILS 152

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPEAN UNION REGULATIONS 35
TABLE 2 CONVENTIONAL PLASTICS: HEALTH CONCERNS 38
TABLE 3 PHA PRODUCTION CAPACITY, BY COMPANY, 2018(TONS/YEAR) 43
TABLE 4 LIST OF VARIOUS COMMERCIALIZED AND YET TO BE COMMERCIALIZED TECHNOLOGIES ALONG WITH TYPE AND METHOD 47
TABLE 5 LIST OF TEPHA INC. PATENTS 50
TABLE 6 LIST OF BACTERIUM STRAINS AND OUTPUT 55
TABLE 7 CURRENT PRODUCTION CAPACITIES (TON) 58
TABLE 8 UPCOMING PLAYERS 59
TABLE 9 DISCONTINUED OR STALLED PRODUCTION 60
TABLE 10 LIST OF PATENTS, 2016–2019 64
TABLE 11 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (TON) 66
TABLE 12 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 67
TABLE 13 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH PHA MARKET, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (TON) 68
TABLE 14 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH PHA MARKET, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 69
TABLE 15 MEDIUM CHAIN LENGTH PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (TON) 70
TABLE 16 MEDIUM CHAIN LENGTH PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 70
TABLE 17 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY PRODUCTION METHOD, 2019–2024 (USD MILLION) 72
TABLE 18 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY PRODUCTION METHOD, 2019–2024 (TON) 73
TABLE 19 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (TON) 75
TABLE 20 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 76
TABLE 21 PHA MARKET SIZE IN PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (TON) 79
TABLE 22 PHA MARKET SIZE IN PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 79
TABLE 23 PHA MARKET SIZE IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (TON) 81
TABLE 24 PHA MARKET SIZE IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (USD MILLION) 81
TABLE 25 PHA MARKET SIZE IN AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (TON) 83
TABLE 26 PHA MARKET SIZE IN AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (USD MILLION) 83
TABLE 27 PHA MARKET SIZE IN OTHER APPLICATIONS, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (TON) 85
TABLE 28 PHA MARKET SIZE IN OTHER APPLICATIONS, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (TON) 85
TABLE 29 BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2016–2023 (TON) 87
TABLE 30 BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 87
TABLE 31 BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (TON) 87
TABLE 32 BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 88
TABLE 33 BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2016–2023 (TON) 88
TABLE 34 BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 88
TABLE 35 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (TON) 89
TABLE 36 PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 89
TABLE 37 NORTH AMERICA: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (TON) 90
TABLE 38 NORTH AMERICA: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 90
TABLE 39 NORTH AMERICA: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (TON) 90
TABLE 40 NORTH AMERICA: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 91
TABLE 41 MAJOR PHA MANUFACTURERS IN NORTH AMERICA 92
TABLE 42 UPCOMING PHA MANUFACTURERS IN NORTH AMERICA 93
TABLE 43 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2017–2024 (TON) 93
TABLE 44 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 93
TABLE 45 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (TON) 93
TABLE 46 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 94
TABLE 47 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (TON) 94
TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 94
TABLE 49 US: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017-2024 95
TABLE 50 CANADA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017-2024 96
TABLE 51 MEXICO: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017-2024 96
TABLE 52 EUROPE: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (TON) 97
TABLE 53 EUROPE: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 97
TABLE 54 EUROPE: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (TON) 97
TABLE 55 EUROPE: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 98
TABLE 56 MAJOR PHA MANUFACTURERS IN EUROPE 100
TABLE 57 UPCOMING PHA MANUFACTURERS IN EUROPE 100
TABLE 58 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2024 (TON) 100
TABLE 59 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2024 (USD MILLION) 101
TABLE 60 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (TON) 101
TABLE 61 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2019–2024 (USD MILLION) 101
TABLE 62 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (TON) 102
TABLE 63 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 102
TABLE 64 GERMANY: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 103
TABLE 65 UK: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 104
TABLE 66 FRANCE: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 104
TABLE 67 ITALY: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 105
TABLE 68 REST OF EUROPE: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 106
TABLE 69 APAC: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (TON) 106
TABLE 70 APAC: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 107
TABLE 71 APAC: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (TON) 107
TABLE 72 APAC: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 107
TABLE 73 MAJOR PHA MANUFACTURERS IN APAC 110
TABLE 74 UPCOMING PHA MANUFACTURERS IN APAC 110
TABLE 75 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2017–2024 (TON) 110
TABLE 76 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 111
TABLE 77 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (TON) 111
TABLE 78 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 112
TABLE 79 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 ( TON) 112
TABLE 80 APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017–2024 (USD MILLION) 112
TABLE 81 CHINA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 114
TABLE 82 JAPAN: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 114
TABLE 83 INDIA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 115
TABLE 84 MALAYSIA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 115
TABLE 85 SOUTH KOREA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 116
TABLE 86 REST OF APAC: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017–2024 116
TABLE 87 ROW: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (TON) 117
TABLE 88 ROW: BIO-BASED PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 117
TABLE 89 ROW: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (TON) 117
TABLE 90 ROW: BIO-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2016–2023 (USD MILLION) 118
TABLE 91 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (TON) 118
TABLE 92 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2017-2024 (USD MILLION) 118
TABLE 93 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017-2024 (TON) 119
TABLE 94 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2017-2024 (USD MILLION) 119
TABLE 95 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017-2024 (TON) 119
TABLE 96 ROW: PHA MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2017-2024 (USD MILLION) 120
TABLE 97 SOUTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017-2024 120
TABLE 98 MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA: PHA MARKET SIZE, 2017-2024 121
TABLE 99 MAJOR PHA PRODUCERS 126
TABLE 100 COLLABORATIONS, PARTNERSHIPS, CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS, 2016–2019 127
TABLE 101 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES, 2018–2019 128
TABLE 102 EXPANSIONS, 2018 128

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1 PHA MARKET: BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 21
FIGURE 2 PHA MARKET: TOP-DOWN APPROACH 21
FIGURE 3 CAPACITY UTILIZATION IS ONLY ABOUT 20% OF THE TOTAL INSTALLED PRODUCTION CAPACITY 25
FIGURE 4 SUGAR FERMENTATION IS THE MOST USED METHOD OF PHA PRODUCTION 26
FIGURE 5 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH TYPE TO ACCOUNT FOR THE LARGER SHARE IN THE MARKET 27
FIGURE 6 PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES TO BE THE LARGEST APPLICATION OF PHA 27
FIGURE 7 EUROPE IS THE LARGEST AND THE FASTEST-GROWING PHA MARKET 28
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET GROWTH IS ATTRIBUTED TO GOVERNMENT POLICIES 30
FIGURE 9 EUROPE TO BE THE LARGEST PHA MARKET 30
FIGURE 10 GERMANY AND SHORT CHAIN LENGTH SEGMENT ACCOUNTED FOR THE LARGEST SHARES OF THE EUROPEAN PHA MARKET 31
FIGURE 11 PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES SEGMENT TO ACCOUNT FOR THE LARGEST MARKET SHARE 31
FIGURE 12 GERMANY TO BE THE FASTEST-GROWING PHA MARKET 32
FIGURE 13 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH WAS THE LARGER TYPE OF PHA IN 2018 32
FIGURE 14 1925 MARKS THE DISCOVERY OF PHA IN FRANCE 33
FIGURE 15 DRIVERS, RESTRAINTS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES IN THE PHA MARKET 34
FIGURE 16 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS: GLOBAL PHA MARKET 44
FIGURE 17 DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES USED FOR PHA PRODUCTION 46
FIGURE 18 PROCESS FLOW OF PHA PRODUCTION 52
FIGURE 19 SUGAR SUBSTRATES FOR PHA PRODUCTION 53
FIGURE 20 HYDROCARBON SUBSTRATES 54
FIGURE 21 EXTRACTION PROCESS FLOW 57
FIGURE 22 VERBATIM FROM DISCUSSION WITH INDUSTRY EXPERTS 61
FIGURE 23 PATENT ANALYSIS, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2016–2019 62
FIGURE 24 PATENTS’ TREND: YEAR-WISE (2016–2019) 63
FIGURE 25 SHORT CHAIN LENGTH PHA SEGMENT TO ACCOUNT FOR LARGER MARKET SHARE 66
FIGURE 26 SUGAR FERMENTATION METHOD TO LEAD THE PHA MARKET 72
FIGURE 27 PACKAGING & FOOD SERVICES ACCOUNTED FOR THE MAXIMUM SHARE IN THE PHA MARKET, IN 2018, IN TERMS OF VALUE 75
FIGURE 28 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET SNAPSHOT 92
FIGURE 29 US: THE LARGEST PHA MARKET, GLOBALLY 95
FIGURE 30 EUROPE: PHA MARKET SNAPSHOT 99
FIGURE 31 GERMANY: SECOND-LARGEST CONSUMER OF PHA, GLOBALLY 103
FIGURE 32 APAC: PHA MARKET SNAPSHOT 109
FIGURE 33 CHINA: FASTEST-GROWING PHA MARKET IN APAC IN TERMS OF BOTH VALUE AND VOLUME 113
FIGURE 34 PHA MARKET: COMPETITIVE LEADERSHIP MAPPING, 2018 123
FIGURE 35 COLLABORATIONS, PARTNERSHIPS, CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS WERE THE MOST PREFERRED GROWTH STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY MAJOR PLAYERS BETWEEN 2016 AND 2019 125
FIGURE 36 TOP 5 PLAYERS ACCOUNTED FOR THE MAJOR MARKET SHARE IN 2018 126
FIGURE 37 DANIMER SCIENTIFIC: SWOT ANALYSIS 130
FIGURE 38 SHENZHEN ECOMANN BIOTECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.: SWOT ANALYSIS 132
FIGURE 39 NEWLIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC: SWOT ANALYSIS 134
FIGURE 40 KANEKA CORPORATION: COMPANY SNAPSHOT 135
FIGURE 41 KANEKA CORPORATION: SWOT ANALYSIS 136
FIGURE 42 TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIALS CO., LTD.: SWOT ANALYSIS 138