1 METHODOLOGY & EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
1.1 Our Approach 8
1.2 The World Market: Imported Lactic Acid, Tartaric Acid, Citric Acid, and Their Salts and Esters in 2016 14
1.3 The World Market: Lactic Acid, Tartaric Acid, Citric Acid, and Their Salts and Esters Export Supplies in 2016 17

2 AFRICA: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 19
2.1 Executive Summary 19
2.2 Algeria 23
2.3 Botswana 23
2.4 Burundi 24
2.5 Cameroon 24
2.6 Cote d'Ivoire 24
2.7 Egypt 25
2.8 Ethiopia 25
2.9 Ghana 26
2.10 Madagascar 26
2.11 Mali 26
2.12 Mauritius 27
2.13 Morocco 27
2.14 Mozambique 28
2.15 Namibia 28
2.16 Nigeria 29
2.17 Senegal 29
2.18 South Africa 30
2.19 Sudan 30
2.20 Togo 31
2.21 Uganda 31
2.22 Zimbabwe 32

3 ASIA: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 33
3.1 Executive Summary 33
3.2 Cambodia 36
3.3 China 37
3.4 Hong Kong 38
3.5 India 39
3.6 Indonesia 40
3.7 Japan 41
3.8 Malaysia 42
3.9 Papua New Guinea 42
3.10 Philippines 43
3.11 Singapore 44
3.12 South Korea 45
3.13 Sri Lanka 46
3.14 Taiwan 46
3.15 Thailand 47
3.16 Vietnam 48

4 EUROPE: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 49
4.1 Executive Summary 49
4.2 Albania 53
4.3 Austria 53
4.4 Belarus 54
4.5 Belgium 55
4.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 56
4.7 Bulgaria 56
4.8 Croatia 57
4.9 Cyprus 57
4.10 Czech Republic 58
4.11 Denmark 59
4.12 Estonia 59
4.13 Finland 60
4.14 France 61
4.15 Georgia 62
4.16 Germany 63
4.17 Greece 64
4.18 Hungary 65
4.19 Iceland 65
4.20 Ireland 66
4.21 Italy 67
4.22 Kazakhstan 68
4.23 Latvia 68
4.24 Lithuania 69
4.25 Luxembourg 69
4.26 Macedonia 70
4.27 Malta 70
4.28 Moldova 71
4.29 Norway 71
4.30 Poland 72
4.31 Portugal 73
4.32 Romania 74
4.33 Russia 75
4.34 Slovakia 76
4.35 Slovenia 77
4.36 Spain 78
4.37 Sweden 79
4.38 the Netherlands 80
4.39 Ukraine 81

5 LATIN AMERICA: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 82
5.1 Executive Summary 82
5.2 Argentina 86
5.3 Bolivia 86
5.4 Brazil 87
5.5 Chile 88
5.6 Colombia 89
5.7 Costa Rica 90
5.8 Ecuador 91
5.9 El Salvador 91
5.10 Guatemala 92
5.11 Honduras 92
5.12 Mexico 93
5.13 Nicaragua 93
5.14 Paraguay 94
5.15 Peru 94
5.16 Uruguay 95

6 NORTH AMERICA & THE CARIBBEAN: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 96
6.1 Executive Summary 96
6.2 Canada 100
6.3 Dominica 100
6.4 Dominican Republic 101
6.5 Jamaica 101
6.6 the Bahamas 102
6.7 the United States 103

7 OCEANA: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 104
7.1 Executive Summary 104
7.2 Australia 108
7.3 Fiji 108
7.4 New Caledonia 109
7.5 New Zealand 109

8 THE MIDDLE EAST: LACTIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, CITRIC ACID, AND THEIR SALTS AND ESTERS IMPORTS IN 2016 110
8.1 Executive Summary 110
8.2 Armenia 113
8.3 Azerbaijan 114
8.4 Israel 114
8.5 Jordan 115
8.6 Kyrgyzstan 115
8.7 Lebanon 115
8.8 Oman 116
8.9 Pakistan 117
8.10 Turkey 118
8.11 Yemen 118

9 DISCLAIMERS, WARRANTEES, AND USER AGREEMENT PROVISIONS 119
9.1 Disclaimers & Safe Harbor 119
9.2 ICON Group International, Inc. User Agreement Provisions 120