Contents 1
Executive Summary 6

Chapter 1: Introduction 6

Chapter 2: RNAi for controlling insects and other pests 6

Chapter 3: RNAi in other crop sectors 7

Chapter 4: Formulation and delivery of RNAi technology 8

Chapter 5: Crop protection companies 8

Chapter 6: Specialist RNAi companies and institutes 10

Chapter 1: Introduction 11
1.1 Summary 11
1.2 Introduction 11
1.3 Scope 12
1.4 Technical background 12
1.4.1 History 12
1.4.2 Science of RNAi 14
1.4.2.1 The flow of information in the cell: from DNA to protein via mRNA 14
1.4.2.2 Discovery of RNA interference 14
1.4.2.3 Role of RNAi in nature 15
1.4.2.4 The RNAi process and machinery 15
1.5 Safety and regulations 17
1.5.1 Safety 17
1.5.1.1 Environment 17
1.5.1.2 Food and feed 17
1.5.1.3 Non-target organisms 18
1.5.2 Regulations 18
1.5.2.1 Europe 18
1.5.2.2 USA 19
1.6 References and resources 20

Chapter 2: RNAi for controlling insects and other pests 21
2.1 Summary 21
2.2 Introduction 22
2.2.1 Role of RNAi technology 22
2.2.2 Progress in using RNAi technology 22
2.3 Coleoptera 25
2.4 Lepidoptera 26
2.5 Diptera 26
2.6 Hemiptera 26
2.7 Nematodes 27
2.8 Other pests 27
2.8.1 Fire ants 27
2.8.2 Spider mites 28
2.8.3 Mites 28
2.8.4 Locusts 28
2.8.5 Termites 28
2.9 Patent applications 28
2.9.1 Insects 28
2.9.2 Nematodes 29
2.10 References and resources 30

Chapter 3: RNAi in other crop sectors 34
3.1 Summary 34
3.2 Introduction 34
3.3 Control of diseases 35
3.3.1 Viruses 35
3.3.2 Progress with RNAi for disease control 36
3.3.3 Disease control patent applications 37
3.4 Control of weeds 38
3.4.1 Overcoming herbicide resistance 38
3.4.2 Control of parasitic weeds by RNAi 39
3.5 Crop enhancement 39
3.5.1 Modified oil composition 40
3.5.2 Reduced lignin 40
3.5.3 Abiotic stress 40
3.5.4 Enzymatic browning 41
3.5.5 Crop Enhancement patent applications 41
3.6 References and resources 43

Chapter 4: Formulation and delivery of RNAi 45
4.1 Summary 45
4.2 Introduction 45
4.3 Principles 46
4.3.1 Knowledge base from human therapeutics 46
4.3.2 Progress in crop protection and pest control 46
4.3.3 Collaborations 47
4.4 Patent activity 48
4.5 References and resources 49

Chapter 5: Crop protection companies 51
5.1 Summary 51
5.2 Introduction 52
5.3 BASF 52
5.3.1 Modified starch potatoes 52
5.3.2 Disease control 53
5.3.3 Nematode control 54
5.3.4 Weed control 55
5.4 Bayer CropScience 55
5.4.1 Collaborations 55
5.4.2 Patent applications 56
5.5 Dow AgroSciences 57
5.6 DuPont 60
5.7 Monsanto 62
5.7.1 Low lignin alfalfa 63
5.7.2 SmartStax Pro (MON87411) 63
5.7.3 BioDirect 63
5.7.4 Rosetta Green acquisition 64
5.7.5 Preceres and RNAi delivery R&D 65
5.7.6 Patent applications 65
5.8 Syngenta 68
5.8.1 Collaborations 69
5.8.2 Patent applications 69
5.9 References and resources 70

Chapter 6: Specialist RNAi technology companies and institutes 72
6.1 Summary 72
6.2 Introduction 72
6.3 Alnylam Pharmaceuticals 72
6.4 Arbutus Biopharma 73
6.5 CSIRO 73
6.6 Evogene 74
6.7 Forage Genetics 76
6.8 Forrest Innovations 76
6.9 Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology 77
6.10 Ghent University 77
6.11 Iden Biotechnology 77
6.12 Intrexon 78
6.13 J. R. Simplot 78
6.14 Okanagan Specialty Fruits 79
6.15 Nemgenix 80
6.16 Performance Plants 80
6.17 PhaseRx 81
6.18 Preceres 82
6.19 University of Cambridge 82
6.20 University of Nebraska 82
6.21 Tekmira 82
6.22 Venganza 83
6.23 References and resources 83
Appendix: Abbreviations and Glossary 84

List of Tables
Table 1: In planta RNAi products that have been reviewed and approved by at least one international regulatory agency 13
Table 2: Overview of recently published studies on the use of plant-RNAi against different insect pests 23
Table 3: Recent PCT and US patent applications covering the control of insects and other pests
(excluding those of the crop protection majors) 29
Table 4: Recent PCT and US patent applications covering the control of nematodes
(excluding the crop protection majors) 30
Table 5: Some recent PCT patent applications covering the control of diseases
(excluding the crop protection majors) 38
Table 6: Recent patent applications covering crop enhancement (excluding the crop protection majors) 42
Table 7: Recent PCT and US patent applications claiming improved delivery of RNA 48
Table 8: Recent BASF PCT patents covering RNAi for disease control 53
Table 9: Recent BASF PCT patents covering RNAi for nematode control 54
Table 10: Bayer CropScience RNAi PCT patent applications 56
Table 11: Recent Dow AgroSciences patent applications covering RNAi: Non-collaborative patents 57
Table 12: Recent Dow AgroSciences patent applications covering RNAi: Patents with the
University of Nebraska 59
Table 13: Recent Dow AgroSciences patent applications covering RNAi: Patents with the
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (Germany) 59
Table 14: Recent DuPont patent applications covering RNAi 61
Table 15: Recent Monsanto PCT and US patent applications: Insect and nematode control 66
Table 16: Recent Monsanto US patent applications: Disease control 67
Table 17: Recent Monsanto PCT and US patent applications: Crop enhancement 67
Table 18: Recent Monsanto PCT and US patent applications: Weed control 68
Table 19: Recent Monsanto PCT and US patent applications: General technology 68
Table 20: Recent Syngenta PCT patent applications covering RNAi 69