Part 1 30

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS AND MONOPOLES 30

1. INSTALLED BASE OF ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSON TOWERS & MONOPOLES 31

Global installed base of towers and monopoles 31
North America 33
Europe 34
CIS 36
Middle East 37
North Africa 38
Sub-Saharan Africa 39
Asia 41
Pacific 43
LAC 44
South America 44
Central America and Caribbean 45

2. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS MARKET 47

Global demand for towers 47
North America 48
Europe 49
CIS 50
Middle East 51
Africa 52
Asia Pacific 54
LAC 56

3. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR ELECTRICITY TOWERS AND MONOPOLES 58

Growth of transmission line networks 58

4. MONOPOLES vs. LATTICE TOWERS 62

United States 62
Europe 63
Netherlands 65
Scandinavia 66
Denmark 66
Iceland 67
Finland 67
France 67
Germany 68
Switzerland 68
United Kingdom 68
Italy 69
France 70
Asia Pacific 70
China 70
Japan and Korea 70
India 70
ASEAN 71
Mongolia 71
Pacific 71
Australia and New Zealand 71
Latin America 71
South Africa 71
Middle East 73
Cost 73
Space requirements 74
Reduction of the electromagnetic field 74
Foundations 76

5. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS 77

Suspension tower 77
Tension towers 78
Angle suspension tower 78
Termination or dead end towers, also called tension towers 78
Transposition towers 78
Tower Installation 78

1. Build-up or piecemeal method. 78


2. Section method 78


3. Ground assembly method 79


4. Helicopter method 79


6. ELEMENTS OF LATTICE TOWER DESIGN 80


7. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES 83

Service Life 83
Maintenance 83
Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 84
Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 84
Phase 3 - Extensive Abrasive Rust 85
Phase 4 - Crash 85

8. COMPETITIONS FOR TOWER DESIGN 87


9. MANUFACTURERS OF LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES 90

Chinese manufacturers 91
Indian manufacturers 92
Other Asian manufacturers 94
Middle East 94
North and South American manufacturers 94
Other regions 96

Part 2 97

10. UTILITY POLES INSTALLED BASE BY COUNTRY AND UTILITY 98

Voltage levels of electricity sub-transmission and distribution poles 106

11. INSTALLED BASE OF POLES BY COUNTRY AND MATERIAL 107


12. GROWTH OF THE POLE POPULATION 114


13. DEMAND FOR POLES IN UNITS 122

Demand in numbers of poles 122
Demand for poles 2017 to 2025 125

14. DEMAND FOR POLES BY VALUE 134


15. THE VALUE CHAIN - THE MARGIN STACK 143

The value chain at 6 levels 143

16. NATIONAL MARKETS FOR ELECTRICITY AND TELEPHONE DISTRIBUTION POLES 145

United States 145
The history of utility poles 145
Other materials for utility poles 146
Europe 147
Austria 148
Cyprus 148
Czech Republic 148
Finland 148
France 148
Germany 149
Greece 149
Ireland 149
Netherlands 149
Norway 149
Spain 149
Sweden 150
Switzerland 150
United Kingdom: 150
Russia 151
Asia Pacific 151
Japan 151
China 152
India 152
Korea 152
Singapore and Macau 152
Australia 152
Middle East 153
Saudi Arabia 153
UAE 153
Oman 153
Africa 153

17. STREET LIGHTING 155

The world stock of street lights 156

18. PARKING 158

United States 158
Europe 159
China 159
Japan 161
Global parking revenues 163
Lighting poles in the parking sector 163

19. PASSIVE SAFETY 166

Passive safety pole types 168
Safe materials 168
Frangible pole types 168
Breakaway and slip-base poles 168
Impact-absorbing poles 168
High energy absorbing (HE): 169
Low Energy absorbing (LE) 170
Non Energy absorbing (NE) 170
The origins of the passive safety concept 171
Passive Safety in the EU 171
EU National regulations 172
Norway 172
Finland 172
Sweden 173
Belgium 173
Netherlands 174
United Kingdom 174
Slovenia 174
United States 174

20. THE SMART CITY AND SMART UTILITY & STREET LIGHTING 176

The smart city concept 176
Smart street lighting 176
Light Emitting Diodes - LEDs 177
Central management system (CMS) 177
The street lighting market 178
Regional development of smart cities and public lighting 178
Smart street lighting manufacturers 182

21. POLE MATERIALS AND SERVICE LIFE 183

Materials 183
Use 184
Description 184
Size classification 184
H5 - H1 184

1-5 185


6-10 185

Materials 185
Wood 185
Wood preservatives 187
Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching 188
Steel 188
Concrete 189
Spun and cast concrete poles 189
Composites- fibreglass 191
Disposal 192
Wood poles service life 193
Maintenance 194
Ground line Treatment 195
Internal Treatment 196
Concrete poles service life 196
Steel poles service life 196
Composite poles service life 196

22. COMPOSITE POLES 197

Introduction 197
Development of composite technology and poles in the US 197
Price/cost 197
Safety factor 198
Materials for composites and the manufacturing processes 198
Filament winding 199
Pultrusion 199
Testing composites 199
Scandinavian trials of composites 200
Advantages of composite poles 202
Composite and fibreglass maintenance 203
Service life of composites and other materials 204
Hardware modifications 204
Modular Poles 204

23. MANUFACTURERS OF COMPOSITE POLES AND HARDWARE 206

United States 206
Cross arms 208
Europe 209
Middle East 210
India 211
China 211

24. TYPES OF POLES 213

Other equipment 215
Grounding rod 215
Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles 215
Physical access 215
Construction Classifications 216

25. POLE SPAN 217


26. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES 219

Supply Space 219
Safety Zone Space 221
Communications Space 221

27. MANUFACTURERS OF WOOD, STEEL, ALUMINIUM AND CONCRETE POLES 223

North American manufacturers 223
European manufacturers 224
Netherlands 225
Sweden 225
Italy 225
United Kingdom 225
Middle East 225
South America 226
Brazil 226
African manufacturers 226
Kenya 227
Asia Pacific 228
China 228
India 228
Indian manufacturers 228
Malaysia 228
Australia 228

28. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS 231

Single circuit 231
Double circuit 232
Multiple conductors 232
Restrictions on multiple use of corridors 235

29. RIGHTS OF WAY 236

Multiple use of ROWs 241

30. DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS 242

Extent of the problem 242
The mechanics of an electrocution 245
Mitigation and prevention of collisions 247
Mitigation and prevention of electrocution 247
METHODOLOGY 249
The installed base and demand 249
The model of the demand cycle 249
Creation of the databases of towers and poles 250
Short term demand forecast 252
Street lights 252
Data collection 252
Validation 252

Figures
Figure 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2017-2025 31
Figure 2: Global installed electricity transmission towers by regions, 2018 32
Figure 3: Regional growth in electricity transmission towers, 2017-2025 32
Figure 4: Installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2017-2025 33
Figure 5: Installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2017-25 34
Figure 6: Installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2017-25 36
Figure 7: Installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2017-25 37
Figure 8: Installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2017-25 38
Figure 9: Installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2017-25 39
Figure 10: Installed electricity transmission towers, China and India, 2017-25 41
Figure 11: Installed electricity transmission towers, Rest of Asia, 2017-25 41
Figure 12: Installed electricity transmission towers, Pacific, 2017-25 43
Figure 13: Installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2017-25 44
Figure 14: Installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2017-25 45
Figure 15 : World sales of electricity transmission towers, nominal $, 2018-2025 47
Figure 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2018 47
Figure 17 : The global networks of transmission lines, length in route km 1900 to 2050 58
Figure 18: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions 59
Figure 19: The long-term demand cycles for towers, 1900 to 2050 60
Figure 20: Annual new and replacement installations of towers, 1900 to 2050 61
Figure 21: The market for lattice towers and poles in the USA, $, 2017 63
Figure 22: European countries installing new EHV monopoles 64
Figure 23: Some new designs being installed in Europe 64
Figure 24: New 400 kV monopole designs in the Netherlands 65
Figure 25: New EHV poles in Scandinavia 66
Figure 26: New 400 kV transmission monopoles in Denmark. 66
Figure 27: Mobile lift maintenance 67
Figure 28: Iceland new 220 kV transmission towers 67
Figure 29: New 400 kV and 275 kV transmission monopoles in the United Kingdom. 68
Figure 30: A camouflaged 400 kV transmission monopole in the United Kingdom 69
Figure 31: Terna and 380 kV monopoles 69
Figure 32: New 380 kV monopole in Dubai 73
Figure 33: Comparison of the footprint of a monopole versus a lattice tower. 74
Figure 34: Reduction of electromagnetic fields and space requirements 75
Figure 35: Economy of foundations 76
Figure 36: Suspension tower, single steel pole 77
Figure 37: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom) 77
Figure 38: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter 79
Figure 39: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower 81
Figure 40: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower 81
Figure 41: 220-kV single-circuit LST 82
Figure 42: 500-kV single-circuit LST 82
Figure 43: 220-kV double-circuit LST 82
Figure 44: 500-kV double-circuit LST 82
Figure 45: The principle of exponential corrosion 83
Figure 46: Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 84
Figure 47: Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 84
Figure 48: Phase 3 - Abrasive Rust 85
Figure 49: Phase 3 - The tower falls 85
Figure 50: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/1 87
Figure 51: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/2 87
Figure 52: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/3 88
Figure 53: Y Pylon by Knight Architects competition for National Grid 2012 88
Figure 54: Plexus by Arup for National Grid 2012 89
Figure 55: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi & Shine 89
Figure 56: Major countries stock of electricity poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights, 2018 99
Figure 58: Demand for poles; electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050 122
Figure 59: Additions and replacements for poles; electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights, 1900 to 2017, forecast to 2050 123
Figure 60: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040 124
Figure 61: Early poles in the United States 145
Figure 62: The Detroit railroad concrete catenary structure 147
Figure 63: Early use of granite telephone poles in Switzerland 150
Figure 64: Utility pole in Japan 151
Figure 65: A Stobie pole in Australia 153
Figure 66: Road length and street lights 155
Figure 67: Stock of street lights in the world 2018 to 2025 157
Figure 68: Comparison of the numbers of motor vehicles and available parking spaces in three of China's largest cities 160
Figure 69: Classification of parking as aces in Japan 161
Figure 70: A mechanical parking structure 162
Figure 71: 60 mph crash test with 114 mm post 166
Figure 72: Slip-base poles 168
Figure 73:Impact absorbing pole 169
Figure 74: HE, LE and NE passive safety poles performance in a collision 170
Figure 75: Percentage share of road deaths per road type (2007-2009 average) ranked by the percentage share of road deaths on a rural roads and motorways taken together 171
Figure 76: Examples of LED street lighting adoption 178
Figure 77: The top 20 smart cities in performance ranking in 2017 179
Figure 78: The top 20 smart cities in consolidated performance ranking in 2017 180
Figure 79: Smart streel lighting manufacturers 182
Figure 80: Wood joint use pole in the USA 186
Figure 81: Decorative Wood light pole in the USA 187
Figure 82: Decorative Wood light pole by Tehomet in Europe, a Valmont subsidiary 187
Figure 83: Union Metal steel pole installation, 1927 and 2018 189
Figure 84: A Stobie pole in Australia, electricity and street light 191
Figure 85: Outline of potential decay patterns 194
Figure 86 : Decay in a wood utility pole 195
Figure 87: A nest of poles for shipment 205
Figure 88: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures 213
Figure 89: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles 213
Figure 90: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel 214
Figure 91: H-frame wood structure 214
Figure 92: Lines in Bolivia (left) have considerably longer span than lines in Laos (right) 218
Figure 93: Space allocations on a joint utility pole 219
Figure 94: Supply space on a utility pole 220
Figure 95: Safety Zone Space on a utility pole 221
Figure 96: The Communications Space in a utility pole 222
Figure 97: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors) 231
Figure 98: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors) 232
Figure 99: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors) 233
Figure 100: Multiple lines, lattice towers and monopoles in same corridor 234
Figure 101: A distribution line right of way 236
Figure 102: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow. 236
Figure 103: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow. 237
Figure 104: An example of a single ROW corridor. 237
Figure 105: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridor 238
Figure 106 : Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower 239
Figure 107: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower 240
Figure 108: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines 240
Figure 109: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa 242
Figure 110: White storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vladeni in Romania 243
Figure 111: An example of a pole-mounted transformer 246
Figure 112: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device 248
Figure 113 : Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device 248
Figure 114: Additions and replacements from 1945 to 1950 249
Figure 115: Additions and replacements from 1900 to 1950 251
Figure 116: Comparison of the installed base and annual demand for towers, 1900 to 2050 251

Tables
Table 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, by region, 2017-2025 33
Table 2: Installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2017-25 33
Table 3: Installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2017-2025 35
Table 4: Installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2017-25 36
Table 5: Installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2017-25 37
Table 6: Installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2017-25 38
Table 7: Installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2017-22 40
Table 8: Installed electricity transmission towers, Asia, 2017-22 42
Table 9: Installed electricity transmission towers, Pacific, 2017-25 43
Table 10: Installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2017-25 44
Table 11: Installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2017-25 46
Table 12: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2018 48
Table 13: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North America, nominal $, 2018-2025 48
Table 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Europe, nominal $, 2018-2025 49
Table 15: Sales of electricity transmission towers, CIS, nominal $, 2018-2025 50
Table 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Middle East, nominal $, 2018-2025 51
Table 17: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North Africa, nominal $, 2018-2025 52
Table 18: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $, 2018-2025 52
Table 19: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Asia, nominal $, 2018-2025 54
Table 20: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Pacific, nominal $, 2018-2025 55
Table 21: Sales of electricity transmission towers, South America, nominal $, 2018-2025 56
Table 22: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Central America, nominal $, 2018-2025 57
Table 23: Description and cost of repairs 86
Table 24: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity 90
Table 25: Numbers of electricity poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights, 2018 99
Table 26: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in North America, 2018 99
Table 27: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Europe, 2018 100
Table 28: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in CIS, 2018 101
Table 29: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in the Middle East, 2018 101
Table 30: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in North Africa, 2018 101
Table 31: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2018 102
Table 32: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Asia, 2018 103
Table 33: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Pacific, 2018 104
Table 34: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in South America, 2018 105
Table 35: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Central America, 2018 105
Table 36: Numbers of electricity poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by material, 2018 107
Table 37: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in North America by material, 2018 107
Table 38: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Europe by material, 2018 108
Table 39: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in CIS by material, 2018 109
Table 40: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in the Middle East by material, 2018 109
Table 41: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North Africa by material, 2018 109
Table 42: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights S-Saharan Africa by material, 2018 110
Table 43: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Asia by material, 2018 111
Table 44: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in the Pacific by material, 2018 112
Table 45: Electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in South America by material, 2018 113
Table 46: Electricity, telephone poles, street & parking lights in Central America by material, 2018 113
Table 47: Installed base of electricity poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights, 2017 - 2025 114
Table 48: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in North America, 2017 - 2025 114
Table 49: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Europe, 2017 - 2025 114
Table 50: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in CIS, 2017 - 2025 115
Table 51: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in the Middle East, 2017 - 2025 116
Table 52: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in North Africa, 2017 - 2025 116
Table 53: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street & parking lights, S-S Africa, 2017 - 25 117
Table 54: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Asia, 2017 - 2025 118
Table 55: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights in Pacific, 2017 - 2025 119
Table 56: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights, South America, 2017 - 2025 120
Table 57: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles, street and parking lights, Central America, 2017 - 2025 121
Table 58: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040 124
Table 59: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by region, 2017-2025 125
Table 60: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, North America, 2017-2022 125
Table 61: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Europe, 2017-2025 126
Table 62: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, CIS, 2017-2025 127
Table 63: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Middle East, 2017-2025 127
Table 64: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, North Africa, 2017-2025 128
Table 65: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2017-2025 129
Table 66: Demand for poles electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Asia, 2017-2025 130
Table 67: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Pacific, 2017-2025 131
Table 68: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, South America, 2017-2025 132
Table 69: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country, Central America, 2017-2025 133
Table 70: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by region in nominal $ value, 2018-2025 134
Table 71: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country nominal $ value, North America, 2018-2025 134
Table 72: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country nominal $ value, Europe, 2018-2025 135
Table 73: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, CIS, 2018-2025 136
Table 74: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, Middle East, 2018-2025 136
Table 75: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, North Africa, 2018-2025 137
Table 76: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2017-2022 138
Table 77: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, Asia, 2018-2025 139
Table 78: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, Pacific, 2018-2025 140
Table 79: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, South America, 2018-2025 141
Table 80: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street and parking lights by country in nominal $ value, Central America, 2018-2025 142
Table 81: Costs and mark-up from Bill of Materials to Capex 144
Table 82: Road length and street lights 156
Table 83: Installed stock of street lights in the world 2018 to 2025 157
Table 84: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots by major countries, 2017 163
Table 85: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots in Europe, 2017 164
Table 86: Annual new and replacement sales of poles for parking lots 165
Table 87: Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries. 245
Table 88: The size of large raptors 247
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