1. 1.0 Executive Summary
1.1 Research Scope
1.2 Research Methodology
1.3 Research Methodology Explained
1.4 Ethylene proves to be vital for monitoring ripeness of fruits
1.5 Presence of high levels of ethylene directly influences the shelf life of the produce
1.6 Impact of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases on fruits
1.7 Electronic Nose detects ethylene and other VOCs suitable for ripeness detection

2. 2.0 Need for Detecting Fruit Ripeness
2.1 Freshness Detection in Fruits and Vegetables- A Brief Snapshot
2.2 Challenges in Monitoring Fruit Ripeness During Transport are Complex
2.3 Other Challenges in Monitoring Fruit Ripeness are associated with levels of ethylene and ripening stage correlation
2.4 Emerging Technologies Suitable for the Detection of Freshness of Produce

3. 3.0 Electronic Nose
3.1 VOCs (i.e., Ethylene) Crucial in Identifying Ripeness of Produce, Particularly Climacteric Fruits
3.2 Climacteric fruits are known to produce higher ethylene than non-climacteric fruits
3.3 Electronic Noses have Opportunities for Detecting VOCS in Ripening or Decaying Fruits and Vegetables
3.4 Electronic Noses Using Tin/Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors

4. 4.0 Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging
4.1 Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging integrate the advantages of imaging and spectroscopy technologies
4.2 Limitations in Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging

5. 5.0 RGB Camera
5.1 RGB Cameras offer accurate images which can be used for recording conditions

6. 6.0 Microwave Imaging
6.1 Microwave technology aids in the measurement of the entire structure of the produce
6.2 Limitations in Microwave Imaging

7. 7.0 Near Infrared Spectrometry
7.1 Near Infrared Spectrometry are suitable for analyzing spectral fingerprint of target
7.2 Limitations of NIR Spectrometry
7.3 Visible/Near Infrared Spectrometric DA Meter
7.4 Significance of Nondispersive (NDIR) Absorption Spectroscopy in Freshness Detection of Produce
7.5 Determination of Fruit Ripeness Using Ultraviolet Spectrometry by Measuring Fluorescence of Chlorophyll

8. 8.0 Electrochemical Sensor
8.1 Electrocatalytic Electrochemical Sensor offers sensitivity and portability suitable for ethylene detection

9. 9.0 Calorimetric Sensor
9.1 Colorimetric Sensing can also Prove to be a Suitable Technology for Freshness Detection

10. 10.0 Other Technologies to Measure Fruit or Vegetable Maturity or Ripeness
10.1 Capability of Ultrasonic Sensing for freshness detection
10.2 Capability of Micro Gas Chromatography for freshness detection
10.3 Capability of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for freshness detection
10.4 Capability of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for freshness detection
10.5 Laser Biospeckle Measurements for Freshness Detection
10.6 Additional Methods to Measure Fruit Maturity or Ripeness

11. 11.0 Ranking of Key Technologies suitable for detecting Fruit/Vegetable Ripeness
11.1 Electrochemical and gas chromatography are highly suitable for determination of fruit ripeness
11.2 Cost effective E-Nose will have potential in the determination of produce freshness
11.3 NIR Spectroscopy will have a potential as a cost-effective solution of determining fruit ripeness
11.4 Hyperspectral imaging has the capability to acquire large amount of information needed for freshness detection
11.5 UV fluorescence measures chlorophyll from the fruits' skin for freshness detection
11.6 X-Ray and Terahertz Imaging are the other technologies which have a potential for freshness detection
11.7 RGB and photoacoustic spectroscopy are being investigated for quality inspection
11.8 CRDS offers measurement using near infrared laser

12. 12.0 Conclusions and Strategic Recommendations
12.1 Affordability and accuracy are some of the key parameters expected from sensing technologies for freshness detection
12.2 Sensing of ethylene aids in identifying the ripeness of fruits and vegetables
12.3 Traditional ethylene measuring techniques have been expensive and laborious
12.4 E-noses can be suitable for comparing VOCs suitable for detecting fruit ripeness

13. 13.0 Industry Contacts
13.1 Industry Contacts
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