1 Key statistics

2 Covid-19 and its impact on the telecom sector

2.1 Economic considerations and responses

2.2 Subscribers

2.3 Infrastructure

3 Telecommunications market

3.1 Market overview and analysis

4 Regulatory environment

4.1 Regulatory authorities

4.2 Fixed-line developments

4.2.1 Number portability

4.2.2 Alternative voice services trials program (AVST)

4.2.3 Mobile Black Spot Program

4.2.4 Telecommunications Act 1997 amendments

4.2.5 Standards, rules and benchmarks related to the country's statutory infrastructure providers (SIP)

4.3 Mobile market developments

4.3.1 Spectrum ownership and licences

4.3.2 Fifteen-year spectrum licence pathway

4.3.3 Additional spectrum 5G

4.3.4 Spectrum auctions

5 Mobile market

5.1 Market analysis

5.2 Mobile statistics

5.2.1 Operator market share

5.2.2 Prepaid and postpaid subscribers

5.2.3 Mobile services revenue

5.2.4 Average revenue per user (ARPU)

5.2.5 Mobile voice

5.2.6 Mobile broadband

5.3 Mobile infrastructure

5.3.1 5G

5.3.2 4G (LTE)

5.3.3 3G

5.3.4 GSM

5.3.5 Other infrastructure developments

5.4 Major mobile operators

5.4.1 Telstra

5.4.2 Optus

5.4.3 TPG Telecom (formerly Vodafone Hutchison Australia)

5.4.4 Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs)

5.5 Mobile handsets

5.5.1 Wearables and smartwatches

6 Fixed-line broadband market

6.1 Market analysis

6.2 Fixed broadband statistics

6.3 National Broadband Network (NBN)

6.3.1 Overview and statistics

6.3.2 Fixed wireless networks

6.3.3 nbn's satellite network

6.4 Fibre networks

6.4.1 Major players

6.5 G.fast and XG.fast

6.6 HFC (Cable) networks

6.7 DSL

6.8 Wi-Fi

6.9 Fixed broadband service providers

6.9.1 Telstra

6.9.2 Optus

6.9.3 TPG Telecom

6.9.4 Vocus

6.9.5 Macquarie Telecom

6.9.6 Uniti Group Limited (UWL)

6.9.7 HyperOne

7 Digital economy

7.1 Internet of Things (IoT)

7.1.1 Market statistics and surveys

7.2 Smart city projects

7.3 E-government

8 Telecommunications infrastructure

8.1 National telecom network

8.2 International infrastructure

8.2.1 Submarine cables

9 Appendix Historic data

10 Glossary of abbreviations

List of Tables
Table 1 Top Level Country Statistics and Telco Authorities- Australia 2020 (e)
Table 2 Development of telecom market retail revenue 2011 2026
Table 3 Total telecom market retail revenue by service 2007 2020
Table 4 Total telecoms market annual growth by service 2008 2020
Table 5 Total telecoms market market share by service 2010 2020
Table 6 Telecom revenue by major provider 2014 2020
Table 7 Annual growth in telecom revenue by major provider 2015 2020
Table 8 Market share of telecom revenue by major provider 2014 2020
Table 9 Second-tier telcos' revenue and annual change 2010 2020
Table 10 Second-tier telcos' revenue by provider 2014 2020
Exhibit 5 Expiring spectrum allocation timetable 2015 - 2028
Table 11 Spectrum charges for spectrum bandwidth licenses
Table 12 1.8GHz spectrum auction results 2016
Table 13 700MHz and 2.5GHz auction results - 2013
Table 14 - 1800MHz auction results February 2016
Table 15 3.6GHz spectrum awards - 2018
Table 17 Growth in the number of mobile subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Table 18 Change in the number of mobile subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Table 19 Annual change of the number of mobile subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Table 20 Change in the market share of mobile subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Table 21 Change in the number of prepaid subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Table 22 MNO market share of prepaid subscribers 2010 2020
Table 23 Change in the number of postpaid subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Table 24 MNO market share of postpaid subscribers 2009 2020
Table 25 Change in the number of prepaid and postpaid subscribers 2010 2020
Table 26 Change in the proportion of prepaid and postpaid subscribers 2009 2020
Table 27 Prepaid as proportion of total mobile subscribers by operator - 2010 2020
Table 28 Postpaid as proportion of total mobile subscribers by operator - 2009 2020
Table 29 Total mobile services market revenue and annual change 2011 2026
Table 30 Mobile market revenue per major operator 2010 2020
Table 31 Mobile market revenue market share per major operator 2010 2020
Table 32 Annual change of mobile market revenue per major operator 2010 2020
Table 33 Change in Telstra's mobile ARPU - prepaid, postpaid, mobile broadband 2010 2021
Table 34 Change in Optus's mobile ARPU 2010 2020
Table 35 Change in Vodafone Australia's monthly ARPU 2015 2019
Table 36 Growth in the number of mobile broadband subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Table 37 Wireless broadband subscribers by access type 2009 2018
Table 38 Mobile broadband subscribers by MNO 2007 2018
Table 39 Estimated mobile broadband data downloaded in Petabytes 2009 2018
Table 40 Development of Telstra Group's financial data - 2011 2021
Table 41 Development of Telstra's mobile prepaid and postpaid revenue 2008 2021
Table 42 Development of Telstra's mobile revenue by type 2009 2021
Table 43 Change in the number of Telstra's mobile subscribers by type 2009 2020
Table 44 Development of Optus's mobile revenue 2010 2021
Table 45 Change in the number of Optus's mobile subscriber 2011 2020
Table 46 Change in the number of Optus's mobile subscribers by type 2010 2020
Table 47 Development of Vodafone Australia's revenue 2009 2019
Table 48 Change in the number of Vodafone Australia's mobile subscribers by type 2009 2019
Table 49 Change in the number of TPG Telecom's mobile subscribers by type 2019 2020
Table 50 Development of TPG Telecom's mobile revenue by service 2019 2020
Table 51 Development of amaysim's mobile financial data 2016 2021
Table 52 Change in the number of amaysim's mobile subscribers 2014 2020
Table 53 Internet connections via mobile handsets 2011 2019
Table 54 Australian handset platform market share 2017 - 2020
Table 55 Fixed broadband retail subscribers by major provider 2010 2020
Table 56 Fixed broadband retail subscriber annual growth by major provider 2011 2020
Table 57 Fixed broadband retail subscribers market share by major provider 2010 2020
Table 58 Change in the number of Telstra's retail and wholesale broadband subscribers 2011 2020
Table 59 Fixed broadband subscribers by access type 2011 2019
Table 60 Fixed broadband subscriber annual growth 2012 2019
Table 61 Wireless broadband subscribers by access type 2011 2019
Table 62 Wireless broadband subscriber annual growth 2012 2019
Table 63 Market share of fixed and fixed wireless broadband subscribers 2011 2019
Table 64 Growth in the number of fixed broadband subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Table 65 Internet subscribers by download speed 2016 2018
Table 66 Volume of data downloaded by access type - 2013 2019
Table 67 NBN premises activated, ready for service 2011 2020
Table 68 Development of nbn's revenue 2013 2021
Table 69 Change in nbn's annualised ARPU 2013 2021
Table 70 Change in nbn's fibre capex 2013 2020
Table 71 Change in nbn's HFC, wireless, other capex 2013 2021
Table 72 Growth in the number of nbn's fibre connections by platform 2013 2020
Table 73 Growth in the number of nbn's HFC, wireless, satellite connections 2013 2020
Table 74 Change in the share of nbn's connections by platform 2013 2020
Table 75 nbn's FttP connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 76 nbn's FttB connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 77 nbn's FttN connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 78 nbn's FttC connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 79 nbn's HFC connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 80 nbn's wireless broadband connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 81 nbn's satellite broadband connections and market share by operator September 2020
Table 82 Growth in the number of FttP subscribers 2013 2020
Table 83 Growth in the number of FttC subscribers 2018 2020
Table 84 nbn's capex on FttN and FttC 2014 2020
Table 85 HFC Roll out plan 2016 2020
Table 86 Cable broadband subscribers by major operator and annual change 2011 2020
Table 87 DSL broadband subscribers 2009 2019
Table 88 Change in the number of Optus's broadband connections by type - 2013 2020
Table 89 iiNet's acquisitions 2003 2014
Table 90 Development of TPG's financial data ($ million) 2011 2019
Table 91 Development of TPG Telecom's financial data ($ billion) 2019 2020
Table 92 TPG's revenue by division ($ million) 2009 2019
Table 93 TPG Telecom's revenue by division ($ million) 2019 2020
Table 94 TPG's broadband ARPU ($ / month) 2016 2020
Table 95 TPG Consumer broadband subscribers (thousands) by product 2017 2020
Table 96 TPG Group mobile subscribers (thousands) by division 2014 2020
Table 97 Vocus Australia - consumer broadband subscribers (thousands) 2018 2020
Table 98 Development of Vocus Group's financial data ($ million) 2012- 2021
Table 99 Development of Macquarie Telecom's financial data ($ million) 2009 2021
Table 100 Decline in the number of fixed-line subscriptions and penetration 2011 2026
Table 101 Historic - Pay TV revenue by major operator 1997 2004
Table 102 Historic - Pay TV revenue by major operator 2005 2017
Table 103 Historic - Blended monthly ARPU by MNO 2000 2010
Table 104 Historic - Total telecoms market retail revenue by service 2001 2015
Table 105 Historic - Total telecoms revenues by smaller operators, and total 2005 2013
Table 106 Historic - Total telecoms revenues by major providers 2000 2013
Table 107 Historic - Second-tier telcos revenue by provider 2010 2014
Table 108 Historic - Second-tier telcos revenue by provider (historic) 2004 2007
Table 109 Historic - Total business and residential broadband subscribers 2006 2014
Table 110 Historic - Annual change of mobile subscribers by carrier 1995; 1997; 2000 2009
Table 111 Historic - Retail mobile subscriber market share by MNO and MVNO 2015 2016
Table 112 Historic - Share of prepaid subscribers by MNO and MVNO 2014 2015
Table 113 Historic - Share of postpaid subscribers by MNO and MVNO 2014 2015
Table 114 Historic - Total mobile services market revenue and annual change 1993 2009
Table 115 Historic - Mobile subscribers, penetration, and annual change 2000 2010
Table 116 Historic - HTA key metrics - 2009 2015
Table 117 Historic - Monthly ARPU and by segment 2009 2012
Table 118 Historic - Vodafone Australia revenue 1996; 1998 2008
Table 119 Historic - VHA MVNO customers 2014 2016
Table 120 Historic - Telstra Group's financial data - 2008 2010
Table 121 Historic - Blended monthly ARPU by MNO 2011 2017
Table 122 Historic - Telstra's mobile ARPU - prepaid, postpaid, mobile broadband 2009 2010
Table 123 Historic Optus's mobile subscribers and annual change 2008 2010
Table 124 Historic - Retail mobile subscribers share by MNO and MVNO 2016 2017
Table 125 Historic - Retail mobile subscribers share by MNO and MVNO 2013 2015
Table 126 Historic nbn's revenue by type 2013 2017
Table 127 Historic - M2's acquisitions 2005 2015

List of Charts
Chart 1 Development of telecom market retail revenue 2011 2026
Chart 2 Total telecom market retail revenue by service 2011 2020
Chart 3 Total telecoms market market share by service 2007 2020
Chart 4 Telecom revenue by major provider 2014 2020
Chart 5 Market share of telecom revenue by major provider 2014 2020
Chart 6 Second-tier telcos' revenue and annual change 2010 2020
Chart 7 Growth in the number of mobile subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Chart 8 Change in the number of mobile subscribers by operator 2009 2020
Chart 9 Change in the market share of mobile subscribers by operator 2010 2020
Chart 10 MNO market share of prepaid subscribers 2009 2020
Chart 11 MNO market share of postpaid subscribers 2009 2020
Chart 12 Change in the number of prepaid and postpaid subscribers 2009 2020
Chart 13 Change in the proportion of prepaid and postpaid subscribers 2009 2020
Chart 14 Total mobile services market revenue and annual change 2011 2026
Chart 15 Mobile market revenue market share per major operator 2009 2020
Chart 16 Change in Telstra's mobile ARPU - prepaid, postpaid, mobile broadband 2011 2021
Chart 17 Change in Optus's mobile ARPU 2009 2020
Chart 18 Growth in the number of mobile broadband subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Chart 19 Development of Telstra Group's financial data - 2011 2021
Chart 20 Development of Telstra's mobile prepaid and postpaid revenue 2011 2021
Chart 21 Development of Telstra's mobile revenue by type 2009 2021
Chart 22 Change in the number of Telstra's mobile subscribers by type 2011 2020
Chart 23 Development of Optus's mobile revenue 2009 2021
Chart 24 Change in the number of Optus's mobile subscriber 2011 2020
Chart 25 Change in the number of Vodafone Australia's mobile subscribers by type 2009 2019
Chart 26 Fixed broadband subscribers by access type 2011 2018
Chart 27 Growth in the number of fixed broadband subscribers and penetration 2011 2026
Chart 28 Development of Macquarie Telecom's financial data ($ million) 2011 2021
Chart 29 Decline in the number of fixed-line subscriptions and penetration 2011 2026

List of Exhibits
Exhibit 1 Mobile spectrum by operator in capital city and regional area
Exhibit 2 GSM services by operator
Exhibit 3 WCDMA services by operator
Exhibit 4 Ownership of selected frequencies for 2.3GHz and 3.4GHz services
Exhibit 16 26GHz spectrum awards - 2021
Exhibit 6 Australian MVNOs mobile carriers
Exhibit 7 Australia region submarine cables
Exhibit 8 Major submarine cables with landing points in Australia

Companies Mentioned
• 42-24
• AARNET
• Aldi Mobile
• Alcatel Submarine Networks
• Altice Portugal
• amaysim
• Amazon
• Apple
• AT&T
• Austar
• Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC)
• Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)
• Aware Super
• Basslink Telecoms
• Bechtel
• Boost Mobile
• BTB Australia
• Bureau of Communications
• Arts and Regional Research (BCARR)
• Disney
• EnergyAustralia
• Ericsson
• Facebook
• FetchTV
• Fibercorp
• Foxtel
• Google
• H2 Cable
• Hawaiki Submarine Cable LP
• Hayu
• Huawei
• Hulu
• iiNet
• Indosat Ooredoo
• Inmarsat
• Kogan
• KPN
• LBNCo
• Lebara Mobile
• Linfox
• LoRa Alliance
• M2
• Macquarie Infrastructure and Real Assets (MIRA)
• Macquarie Telecom. Microsoft
• MTData
• Myriota
• nbn (NBN Co)
• Netflix
• New Skies Satellite
• NICTA
• NNNCo
• Nokia
• NSW Road and Management Services
• NTT
• O3b
• Omantel
• OneWeb
• OPENetworks
• OptiComm
• OPT-NC
• Optus
• Orange Business Services
• Ovo Mobile
• PCCW
• Pivit
• Primus
• RedTrain
• Samsung
• Securatrak
• SES
• Sigfox
• SingTel
• Softbank Corp
• Software AG
• SpaceX
• Spark New Zealand
• Stan
• SUB.CO
• Superloop
• Sydney Water
• TasNetworks
• Telkom South Africa
• Telstra
• Thinxtra
• TPG Telecom
• TransACT
• Uniti Group
• Unwired
• VHA
• Viasat
• Virgin Mobile
• Visionstream
• Vividwireless
• Vocus
• Vodafone
• Vodafone Hutchison Australia.