Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 10
Definitions and terms for supports 18
The functions and types of supporter. 19
All towers and poles, ‘000 units 19
Global installed base of lattice towers and monopoles for electricity transmission and macro telecoms 19
Global installed base utility poles for electricity distribution and telephone lines, streetlights and car par lights 20
The market for supporters 20
Lattice towers and poles annual sales, units and $ 2019 to 2026 21
Sales of supporters by $ value in 2020 by type 21
Revenue by region, $ billions 22
Demand for poles by pole type 23
The impact of Covid-19 23
Long term demand trend - New and Replacement 24
The value chain - the margin stack 24
Types of lattice tower 25
The growth of monopoles 25
Production and manufacturers of towers and monopoles 26
Streetlighting 27
Lighting poles in the parking sector 27
Passive Safety 28
Materials 29
Wood 29
Steel & aluminium 30
Concrete 30
Composite 30

1. OVERVIEW OF SUPPORTERS - TOWERS AND POLES 32

The different infrastructures in which towers and poles are used. 32
Lattice towers, large monopoles and utility poles - owners and users 33
Lattice towers - Transco and MNO 34
Lattice towers -transco towers installed base 10.0 million, 34
Transco monopoles - installed base 6.9 million 34
Telecoms communications macro towers - installed base 5.1 million macro cell stations and MNO lattice towers 1.6 million 35
MNO macro monopoles - installed base 1.1 million 35
Utility poles installed base - electricity distribution (disco) 944 million poles - landline telephone communications 397 million poles 35
Dedicated telecoms small cell poles - 256,000 35
Streetlights - installed base 323.3 million 35
Car park lights - installed base 29.3 million 36
The market for supporters 36

2. ELECTRICITY AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS - INSTALLED POPULATION 39

Development of transmission and telecom towers 39
The increase of transmission voltages and its impact on replacement 40

3. ELECTRICITY AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS - SALES IN UNITS 48

Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units, 2020 48
Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units, 2019-26 55

4. SALES OF TRANSMISSION AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS IN NOMINAL $ VALUE 61

The comparison of real and nominal value 61

5. ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONE, STREETLIGHT & CAR PARK POLES - INSTALLED POPULATION 68

Utility poles- electricity and telephone 68
Streetlights 68
Central management system (CMS) 70
Car parks 70
Telecoms small cell poles 70
Passive safety 71
Installed pole population by function 71
Installed population by material; wood, concrete, steel, composite 78

6. ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONE, STREETLIGHT & CAR PARK POLES - SALES IN UNITS & $ VALUE 84

Demand for poles 84

7. SALES OF POLES IN UNITS 86

Sales of poles by length; < 40' (12 m), 40-<70' (12-21 m), ?70' (21 m) 92
Sales of poles by material; wood, steel, concrete, composite 97
Sales of poles in units by region, 2019-26 102

8. SALES OF POLES IN NOMINAL $ VALUE 109

The comparison of real and nominal value 109
Sales of Sales in nominal $ 109
Sales of poles by length; < 40' (12 m), 40-<70' (12-21 m), ?70' (21 m) 116
Sales of poles by material; wood, steel, concrete, composite 121
Sales of poles in nominal $ by region, 2019-26 127

9. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE MARKET AND INDUSTRY FOR TOWERS AND POLES 133

The mismatch between government, the media, the electrical utilities and the supply industry 133
Impact of the pandemic 134
The impact on the market has two dimensions, supply and demand. 134
North America 134
Europe 135
China 135
India 136
Pakistan 138
South America 138

10. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR TOWERS AND POLES 140

Growth of electricity transmission and distribution line networks, telecoms and streetlighting 140
New installations and replacements 140

11. TRANSMISSION - MONOPOLES vs. LATTICE TOWERS 143

United States 143
Europe 144
Netherlands 145
Scandinavia 147
Denmark 147
Iceland 148
Finland 148
France 148
Germany 148
Switzerland 149
United Kingdom 149
Italy 149
Asia Pacific 150
China 150
Japan and Korea 150
India 150
ASEAN 151
Mongolia 151
Pacific 151
Australia and New Zealand 151
Latin America 151
South Africa 152
Middle East 153
Cost 153
Space requirements 153
Reduction of the electromagnetic field 154
Foundations 155

12. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS 157

Suspension tower 157
Tension towers 158
Angle suspension tower 158
Termination or dead-end towers, also called tension towers 158
Transposition towers 158
Tower Installation 158

1. Build-up or piecemeal method. 159

2. Section method 159

3. Ground assembly method 159

4. Helicopter method 159

Elements of lattice tower design 159

13. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES 164

Service Life 164
Maintenance 164
Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 165
Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 165
Phase 3 - Extensive Abrasive Rust 166
Phase 4 - Crash 166

14. COMPETITIONS FOR TRANSMISSION POLE DESIGN 168

15. NATIONAL MARKETS FOR UTILITY POLES - ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION AND TELEPHONE 171

United States 171
The history of utility poles 171
Other materials for utility poles 172
Europe 173
Austria 174
Cyprus 174
Czech Republic 174
Finland 174
France 174
Germany 175
Greece 175
Ireland 175
Netherlands 175
Norway 175
Spain 175
Sweden 175
Switzerland 176
United Kingdom: 176
Russia 176
Asia Pacific 177
Japan 177
China 177
India 178
Korea 178
Singapore and Macau 178
Australia 178
Middle East 178
Saudi Arabia 179
UAE 179
Oman 179
Africa 179

16. STREETLIGHTING 180

The world stock of streetlights 181

17. PARKING 183

United States 183
Europe 184
China 184
Japan 185
Global parking revenues 187
Lighting poles in the parking sector 188

18. PASSIVE SAFETY 191

The main categories of passive safety road equipment 191
Passive safety pole types 192
Safe materials 192
Frangible pole types 193
Breakaway and slip-base poles 193
Impact-absorbing poles 193
High energy absorbing (HE): 194
Low Energy absorbing (LE) 195
Non Energy absorbing (NE) 195
The origins of the passive safety concept 195
Passive Safety in the EU 196
EU National regulations 197
Norway 197
Finland 197
Sweden 197
Belgium 198
Netherlands 198
United Kingdom 199
Slovenia 199
United States 199

19. UTILITY POLE MATERIALS AND SERVICE LIFE - TRADITIONAL MATERIALS WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE 201

Materials 201
Use 201
Description 202
Size classification 202
H5 - H1 202
1-5 202
6-10 203
Materials 203
Wood 203
Wood preservatives 205
Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching 205
Steel 205
Concrete 206
Spun and cast concrete poles 207
Composites- fibreglass 208
Disposal 209
Wood poles service life 210
Maintenance 211
Ground line Treatment 212
Internal Treatment 213
Concrete poles service life 213
Steel poles service life 213
Composite poles service life 213

20. COMPOSITE POLES 214

Introduction 214
Development of composite technology and poles in the US 214
Price/cost 214
Safety factor 215
Materials for composites and the manufacturing processes 215
Filament winding 215
Pultrusion 216
Testing composites 216
Scandinavian trials of composites 217
Statnett Norway 217
UK 218
Advantages of composite poles 219
Composite and fibreglass maintenance 220
Service life of composites and other materials 220
Hardware modifications 220
Modular Poles 221
21.TYPES OF POLES 222
Other equipment 224
Grounding rod 224
Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles 224
Physical access 224
Construction Classifications 225

22. POLE SPAN 226

23. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES 228

Supply Space 228
Safety Zone Space 229
Communications Space 230
Typical communications cables 230

24. MANUFACTURERS OF TOWERS AND POLES - STEEL, WOOD, CONCRETE 231

China 232
Lattice tower manufacturers 232
Poles 233
India 233
Towers 233
Poles 235
Malaysia 235
Pacific 236
Australia 236
Poles 236
North America 237
Lattice towers 237
Poles 238
South America 239
Brazil 239
Towers and poles 239
Europe 240
Netherlands 241
Sweden 241
United Kingdom 241
Middle East 241
Towers and poles 241
Africa 242
Poles 242
African manufacturers 242
Kenya 243

25. MANUFACTURERS OF COMPOSITE POLES AND HARDWARE 244

United States 244
Cross arms 246
Europe 247
Middle East 248
India 248
China 249

26. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS 251

Single circuit 251
Double circuit 252
Multiple conductors 252
Restrictions on multiple use of corridors 255

27. RIGHTS OF WAY 256

Multiple use of ROWs 260

28. DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS 262

Extent of the problem 262
The mechanics of an electrocution 265
Mitigation and prevention of collisions 267
Mitigation and prevention of electrocution 267
METHODOLOGY 269
The installed base and demand 269
The model of the demand cycle 269
Different segments of the tower and pole population 269
Creation of the databases of electricity transmission towers and distribution poles 269
Telephone poles 270
Streetlights 271
Car Parking lights 271
Demand 271
Growth of electricity transmission & distribution line networks, telecoms and streetlighting 271
New installations and replacements 272

Illustrations
Illustration 1: European countries installing new EHV monopoles 145
Illustration 2: Some new designs being installed in Europe 145
Illustration 3: New 400 kV monopole designs in the Netherlands 146
Illustration 4: New EHV poles in Scandinavia 147
Illustration 5: New 400 kV transmission monopoles in Denmark. 147
Illustration 6: Mobile lift maintenance 148
Illustration 7: Iceland new 220 kV transmission towers 148
Illustration 8: New 400 kV and 275 kV transmission monopoles in the United Kingdom. 149
Illustration 9: A camouflaged 400 kV transmission monopole in the United Kingdom 149
Illustration 10: Terna and 380 kV monopoles 150
Illustration 11: New 380 kV monopole in Dubai 153
Illustration 12: Reduction of electromagnetic fields and space requirements 155
Illustration 13: Economy of foundations 155
Illustration 14: Suspension tower, single steel pole 157
Illustration 15: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom) 158
Illustration 16: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter 159
Illustration 17: Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 165
Illustration 18: Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 165
Illustration 19: Phase 3 - Abrasive Rust 166
Illustration 20: Phase 3 - The tower falls 166
Illustration 21: The BOLD competition winner, 2018 168
Illustration 22: STRAW, winner of the Statnett competition, 2018 169
Illustration 23: Winner of the UK competition, 2011 169
Illustration 24: Pole design offered by National Grid 170
Illustration 25: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi & Shine 170
Illustration 26: Early poles in the United States 171
Illustration 27: The Detroit railroad concrete catenary structure 173
Illustration 28: Early use of granite telephone poles in Switzerland 176
Illustration 29: Utility pole in Japan 177
Illustration 30: A Stobie pole in Australia 178
Illustration 31: A mechanical parking structure 187
Illustration 32: 60 mph crash test with 114 mm post 191
Illustration 33: Slip-base poles 193
Illustration 34:Impact absorbing pole 194
Illustration 35: Wood joint use pole in the USA 204
Illustration 36: Decorative Wood light pole in the USA 204
Illustration 37: Decorative Wood light pole by Tehomet in Europe, a Valmont subsidiary 205
Illustration 38: Union Metal steel pole installation, 1927 and 2018 206
Illustration 39: A Stobie pole in Australia, electricity and streetlight 208
Illustration 40: Decay in a wood utility pole 212
Illustration 41: A nest of poles for shipment 221
Illustration 42: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures 222
Illustration 43: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles 222
Illustration 44: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel 223
Illustration 45: H-frame wood structure 223
Illustration 46: Poles for single phase line in Laos 227
Illustration 47: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors) 251
Illustration 48: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors) 252
Illustration 49: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors) 253
Illustration 50: Multiple lines, lattice towers and monopoles in same corridor 254
Illustration 51: A distribution line right of way 256
Illustration 52: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow. 256
Illustration 53: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow. 257
Illustration 54: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa 262
Illustration 55: White storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vladeni in Romania 263
Illustration 56: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device 268
Illustration 57: Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device 268

Figures
Figure 1: The global population of towers and poles in 2020 by primary user/owner 33
Figure 2: Lattice towers and poles annual sales, units and $ 2019 to 2026 36
Figure 3: Sales of supporters by $ value in 2020 by type 37
Figure 4: The global growth of transmission and telecoms towers from 1950 to 2020. 40
Figure 5: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions 41
Figure 6: Sales of lattice towers in real 2020 and nominal $ 61
Figure 7: Road length and streetlights 69
Figure 8: Demand for poles by function, 2020 84
Figure 9: Demand for poles by pole length, 2020 85
Figure 10: Demand for poles by material, 2020 85
Figure 11: Sales of poles in real 2020 and nominal $ 109
Figure 12: Installed base of poles and annual demand in million poles, 1900 to 2050 140
Figure 13: Demand for poles, new and replacement 1900 to 2050 141
Figure 14: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35-year service life, 1900 to 2040 142
Figure 15: The market for lattice towers and poles in the USA, $, 2017 144
Figure 16: Comparison of the footprint of a monopole versus a lattice tower. 154
Figure 17: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower 161
Figure 18: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower 161
Figure 19: 220-kV single-circuit LST 162
Figure 20: 500-kV single-circuit LST 162
Figure 21: 220-kV double-circuit LST 162
Figure 22: 500-kV double-circuit LST 163
Figure 23: The principle of exponential corrosion 164
Figure 24: Road length and streetlights 180
Figure 25: Stock of streetlights in the world 2018 to 2025 181
Figure 26: Comparison of the numbers of motor vehicles and available parking spaces in three of China's largest cities 185
Figure 27: Classification of parking as aces in Japan 186
Figure 28: HE, LE and NE passive safety poles performance in a collision 195
Figure 29: Percentage share of road deaths per road type (2007-2009 average) ranked by the percentage share of road deaths on a rural roads and motorways taken together 196
Figure 30: Outline of potential decay patterns 211
Figure 31: Space allocations on a joint utility pole 228
Figure 32: Supply space on a utility pole 229
Figure 33: Safety Zone Space on a utility pole 230
Figure 34: The Communications Space in a utility pole 230
Figure 35: An example of a single ROW corridor. 257
Figure 36: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridor 258
Figure 37: Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower 259
Figure 38: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower 259
Figure 39: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines 260
Figure 40: An example of a pole-mounted transformer 266
Figure 41: Installed base of poles and annual demand in million poles, 1900 to 2050 272
Figure 42 Demand for poles, new and replacement 1900 to 2050 273
Figure 43: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040 274

Tables
Table 1: The functions and types of supporter. 32
Table 2: Sales in 2020 as a % of 2019 sales in units by region 37
Table 3: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by region, 2020 39
Table 4: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Europe, 2020 41
Table 5: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, CIS, 2020 42
Table 6: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Middle East, 2020 43
Table 7: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, North Africa, 2020 43
Table 8: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 44
Table 9: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Asia, 2020 45
Table 10: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Pacific, 2020 46
Table 11: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, North America, 2020 46
Table 12: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, South America, 2020 46
Table 13: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Central America, 2020 47
Table 14: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by region, 2020 48
Table 15: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Europe, 2020 48
Table 16: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, CIS, 2020 49
Table 17: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Middle East, 2020 50
Table 18: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North Africa, 2020 50
Table 19: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 50
Table 20: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Asia, 2020 52
Table 21: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Pacific, 2020 52
Table 22: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North America, 2020 53
Table 23: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, South America, 2020 54
Table 24: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Central America, 2020 54
Table 25: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by region, 2019-26 55
Table 26: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Europe, 2019-26 55
Table 27: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, CIS, 2019-26 56
Table 28: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Middle East, 2019-26 56
Table 29: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers units by country, North Africa, 2019-26 56
Table 30: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26 57
Table 31: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Asia, 2019-26 58
Table 32: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Pacific, 2019-26 58
Table 33: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North America, 2019-26 59
Table 34: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, South America, 2019-26 59
Table 35: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Central America, 2019-26 60
Table 36: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by region, 2019-26 61
Table 37: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Europe, 2019-26 62
Table 38: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, CIS, 2019-26 63
Table 39: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Middle East, 2019-26 63
Table 40: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, North Africa, 2019-26 63
Table 41: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26 64
Table 42: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Asia, 65
Table 43: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Pacific, 2019-26 66
Table 44: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, North America, 2019-26 66
Table 45: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, South America, 2019-26 67
Table 46: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Central America, 2019-26 67
Table 47: Installed population of poles in units by function and region, 2020 72
Table 48: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Europe, 2020 72
Table 49: Installed population of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020 73
Table 50: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Middle East, 2020 73
Table 51: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, North Africa, 2020 74
Table 52: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 74
Table 53: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Asia, 2020 75
Table 54: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020 76
Table 55: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, North America, 2020 77
Table 56: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, South America, 2020 77
Table 57: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Central America, 2020 77
Table 58: Installed population of poles in units by function and region, 2020 78
Table 59: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Europe, 2020 78
Table 60: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, CIS, 2020 79
Table 61: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Middle East, 2020 79
Table 62: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, North Africa, 2020 80
Table 63: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 80
Table 64: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Asia, 2020 81
Table 65: Installed population poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020 82
Table 66: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, North America, 2020 82
Table 67: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, South America, 2020 82
Table 68: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Central America, 2020 83
Table 69: Sales of poles in units by function and region, 2020 86
Table 70: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Europe, 2020 86
Table 71: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020 87
Table 72: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Middle East, 2020 87
Table 73: Sales of poles in units by function by country, North Africa, 2020 88
Table 74: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 88
Table 75: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Asia, 2020 89
Table 76: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020 90
Table 77: Sales of poles in units by function by country, North America, 2020 90
Table 78: Sales of poles in units by function by country, South America, 2020 91
Table 79: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Central America, 2020 91
Table 80: Sales of poles in units by length and region, 2020 92
Table 81: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Europe, 2020 92
Table 82: Sales of poles in units by length by country, CIS, 2020 93
Table 83: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Middle East, 2020 93
Table 84: Sales of poles in units by length by country, North Africa, 2020 93
Table 85: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 94
Table 86: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Asia, 2020 95
Table 87: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Pacific, 2020 95
Table 88: Sales of poles in units by length by country, North America, 2020 96
Table 89: Sales of poles in units by length by country, South America, 2020 96
Table 90: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Central America, 2020 96
Table 91: Sales of poles in units by material and region, 2020 97
Table 92: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Europe, 2020 97
Table 93: Sales of poles in units by material by country, CIS, 2020 98
Table 94: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Middle East, 2020 98
Table 95: Sales of poles in units by material by country, North Africa, 2020 99
Table 96: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 99
Table 97: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Asia, 2020 100
Table 98: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020 101
Table 99: Sales of poles in units by material by country, North America, 2020 101
Table 100: Sales of poles in units by material by country, South America, 2020 101
Table 101: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Central America, 2020 102
Table 102: Sales of poles in units by region, 2019-26 102
Table 103: Sales of poles in units by country, Europe, 2019-26 103
Table 103: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2019-26 104
Table 104: Sales of poles in units by country, Middle East, 2019-26 104
able 105: Sales of poles in units by country, North Africa, 2019-26 104
Table 106: Sales of in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26 104
Table 107: Sales of poles in units by country, Asia, 2019-26 106
Table 108: Sales of poles in units by country, Pacific, 2019-26 107
Table 109: Sales of poles in units by country, North America, 2019-26 107
Table 110: Sales of poles in units by country, South America, 2019-26 107
Table 111: Sales of poles in units by country, Central America, 2019-26 108
Table 112: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function and region, 2020 109
Table 113: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Europe, 2020 110
Table 114: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020 111
Table 115: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Middle East, 2020 111
Table 116: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, North Africa, 2020 112
Table 117: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 112
Table 118: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Asia, 2020 113
Table 119: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Pacific, 2020 114
Table 120: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, North America, 2020 114
Table 121: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, South America, 2020 115
Table 122: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Central America, 2020 115
Table 123: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length and region, 2020 116
Table 124: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Europe, 2020 116
Table 125: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, CIS, 2020 117
Table 126: Sales of poles in nominal $by length by country, Middle East, 2020 117
Table 127: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, North Africa, 2020 118
Table 128: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 118
Table 129: Sales of poles in nominal $by length by country, Asia, 2020 119
Table 130: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Pacific, 2020 120
Table 131: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, North America, 2020 120
Table 132: Sales of poles in units by length by country, South America, 2020 120
Table 133: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Central America, 2020 121
Table 134: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material and region, 2020 121
Table 135: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Europe, 2020 122
Table 136: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, CIS, 2020 122
Table 137: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Middle East, 2020 123
Table 138: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, North Africa, 2020 123
Table 139: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 123
Table 140: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, Asia, 2020 124
Table 141: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Pacific, 2020 125
Table 142: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, North America, 2020 125
Table 143: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, South America, 2020 126
Table 144: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Central America, 2020 126
Table 145: Sales of poles in nominal $ by region, 2019-26 127
Table 146: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Europe, 2019-26 127
Table 147: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, CIS, 2019-26 128
Table 148: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Middle East, 2019-26 128
Table 149: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, North Africa, 2019-26 128
Table 150: Sales of in nominal $ by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26 129
Table 151: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Asia, 2019-26 130
Table 152: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Pacific, 2019-26 131
Table 153: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, North America, 2019-26 131
Table 154: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, South America, 2019-26 131
Table 155: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Central America, 2019-26 131
Table 157: Description and cost of repairs 167
Table 158: Road length and streetlights 181
Table 159: Installed stock of streetlights in the world 2018 to 2025 182
Table 160: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots by major countries, 2020 188
Table 161: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots in Europe, 2020 189
Table 162: Annual new and replacement sales of poles for parking lots 190
Table 158: Manufacturers of Towers, with production capacity 231
Table 164: Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries. 265
Table 165: The size of large raptors 266