1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 32

1.1 Why graphene? 33

1.1.1 Exceptional properties 33

1.1.2 Commercial opportunities 33

1.1.3 Collaboration key? 34

1.2 The market in 2019 34

1.3 Future global market outlook 37

1.4 Graphene producers and production capacities 39

1.5 Global graphene demand, 2018-2030, tons 41

1.6 Graphene market by region 46

1.6.1 Asia-Pacific 46

1.6.2 North America 49

1.6.3 Europe 50

1.7 Graphene products 52

1.8 Graphene investments 54

1.9 Industrial collaborations and licence agreements 55

1.10 Graphene market challenges 62

1.11 Market impact from COVID-19 pandemic 63

1.12 Industry developments in 2020 65

2 OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE 67

2.1 History 67

2.2 Types of graphene 68

2.3 Properties 69

2.4 Graphene Quantum Dots 70

2.4.1 Synthesis 72

2.4.2 Applications 73

2.4.2.1 Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics 73

2.4.2.2 Energy 73

2.4.2.3 Biomedicine and healthcare 73

2.4.2.4 Other 73

2.4.3 Pricing 74

2.4.4 Producers 74

3 GRAPHENE PRODUCTION 76

3.1 Quality 77

3.2 Assessment of graphene production methods 78

4 REGULATIONS 83

5 GRAPHENE PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS 88

6 GRAPHENE PRODUCTION 90

6.1 Commercial production capacities 91

6.2 Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide production capacities 92

6.2.1 By producer 92

6.2.2 By region 93

6.3 Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities 94

6.3.1 By producer 95

6.3.2 Production capacity by region 96

6.4 CVD graphene film 97

6.4.1 By producer 97

6.5 Graphene production issues and challenges 98

6.5.1 Oversupply 98

6.5.2 Quality 98

6.5.3 Large-volume markets 99

6.5.4 Commoditisation 99

6.5.5 Industrial end-user perspective 99

7 GRAPHENE PRICING 101

7.1 Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene 102

7.2 Few-Layer graphene pricing 104

7.3 Graphene nanoplatelets pricing 105

7.4 Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing 106

7.5 Graphene quantum dots pricing 107

7.6 Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing 108

7.7 Graphene ink 109

8 GRAPHENE IN 3D PRINTING 110

8.1 Market overview 110

8.2 Market prospects 110

8.3 Market assessment 111

8.4 Applications map 114

8.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 114

8.6 Product developers 115

9 GRAPHENE IN ADHESIVES 118

9.1 Market overview 118

9.2 Market prospects 118

9.3 Market assessment 119

9.4 Applications map 121

9.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 122

9.6 Product developers 123

10 GRAPHENE IN AUTOMOTIVE 124

10.1 Market overview 124

10.2 Market prospects 124

10.3 Market assessment 125

10.4 Applications Map 127

10.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 128

10.6 Product developers 129

11 GRAPHENE IN BATTERIES 134

11.1 Market overview 134

11.2 Market prospects 140

11.3 Market assessment 144

11.4 Applications Map 148

11.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 148

11.6 Product developers 150

12 GRAPHENE IN COMPOSITES 155

12.1 Market overview 155

12.2 Fiber-based polymer composite parts 155

12.2.1 Market prospects 155

12.2.2 Market assessment 156

12.2.3 Applications map 159

12.3 Metal-matrix composites 160

12.3.1 Market assessment 160

12.4 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 161

12.5 Product developers 162

13 GRAPHENE IN CONDUCTIVE INKS 168

13.1 Market overview 168

13.2 Market prospects 168

13.3 Market assessment 169

13.4 Applications map 173

13.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 174

13.6 Product developers 175

14 GRAPHENE IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 178

14.1 Market overview 178

14.2 Market prospects 178

14.3 Market assessment 179

14.3.1 Cement 179

14.3.2 Asphalt bitumen 181

14.4 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 182

14.5 Product developers 183

15 GRAPHENE IN ELECTRONICS 185

15.1 WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS 185

15.1.1 Market overview 185

15.1.2 Market prospects 185

15.1.3 Market assessment 186

15.1.4 Global market, historical and forecast to 2030 188

15.1.5 Product developers 190

15.2 GRAPHENE IN TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 193

15.2.1 Market overview 193

15.2.2 Market prospects 193

15.2.3 Market assessment 194

15.2.4 Applications map 196

15.2.5 Global market, historical and forecast to 2030 197

15.2.6 Product developers 198

15.3 GRAPHENE IN MEMORY DEVICES 200

15.3.1 Market overview 200

15.3.2 Market prospects 200

15.3.3 Market assessment 201

15.3.4 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 203

15.3.5 Product developers 204

16 GRAPHENE IN FILTRATION 206

16.1 Market overview 206

16.2 Market prospects 206

16.3 Market assessment 207

16.4 Applications map 211

16.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 212

16.6 Product developers 213

17 GRAPHENE IN FUEL CELLS 217

17.1 Market overview 217

17.2 Market prospects 217

17.3 Market assessment 218

17.4 Applications map 221

17.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 222

17.6 Product developers 223

18 GRAPHENE IN LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICINE 224

18.1 Market overview 224

18.2 Market prospects 225

18.2.1 Drug delivery 225

18.2.2 Imaging and diagnostics 225

18.2.3 Implants 226

18.2.4 Medical biosensors 227

18.2.5 Woundcare 227

18.2.6 PPE 228

18.2.7 Medical wearables 229

18.3 Market assessment 230

18.4 Applications map 234

18.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 235

18.6 Product developers 237

19 GRAPHENE IN LIGHTING 241

19.1 Market overview 241

19.2 Market prospects 241

19.3 Market assessment 242

19.4 Applications map 244

19.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 244

19.6 Product developers 245

20 GRAPHENE IN LUBRICANTS 247

20.1 Market overview 247

20.2 Market prospects 248

20.3 Market assessment 249

20.4 Applications map 251

20.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 251

20.6 Product developers 253

21 GRAPHENE IN OIL AND GAS 256

21.1 Market overview 256

21.2 Market prospects 256

21.3 Market assessment 257

21.4 Applications map 259

21.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 259

21.6 Product developers 261

22 GRAPHENE IN PAINTS AND COATINGS 263

22.1 Market overview 263

22.2 Market prospects 263

22.3 Market assessment 264

22.4 Applications map 267

22.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 267

22.6 Product developers 269

23 GRAPHENE IN PHOTONICS 275

23.1 Market overview 275

23.2 Market prospects 275

23.3 Market assessment 276

23.4 Applications map 279

23.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 279

23.6 Product developers 281

24 GRAPHENE IN PHOTOVOLTAICS 283

24.1 Market overview 283

24.2 Market prospects 284

24.3 Market assessment 284

24.4 Applications map 287

24.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 287

24.6 Product developers 289

25 GRAPHENE IN RUBBER AND TIRES 291

25.1 Market overview 291

25.2 Market prospects 291

25.3 Market assessment 292

25.4 Applications map 295

25.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 295

25.6 Product developers 297

26 GRAPHENE IN SENSORS 300

26.1 Market overview 300

26.2 Market prospects 301

26.3 Market assessment 301

26.4 Applications map 305

26.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 306

26.6 Product developers 307

27 GRAPHENE IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL 312

27.1 Market overview 312

27.2 Market prospects 312

27.3 Market assessment 313

27.4 Applications map 317

27.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 318

27.6 Product developers 319

28 GRAPHENE IN SUPERCAPACITORS 324

28.1 Market overview 324

28.2 Market prospects 324

28.3 Market assessment 325

28.4 Applications map 328

28.5 Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030 328

28.6 Product developers 330

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCER ASSESSMENT 333

29.1 Types of graphene produced, by producer 333

29.2 Markets targeted, by producer 337

29.3 Graphene product developers target markets 340

30 GRAPHENE COMPANY PROFILES-PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 344 (286 COMPANY PROFILES)

31 APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS 526

32 GRAPHENE EX-PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 532

33 OTHER 2-D MATERIALS 544

33.1 BORON NITRIDE NANOTUBES (BNNT) 546

33.1.1 Properties 546

33.1.2 Applications 547

33.1.2.1 Electronics 547

33.1.2.2 Filtration 548

33.1.2.3 Composites 549

33.1.2.4 Medicine and life sciences 549

33.1.3 Production 550

33.2 HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE (BNNS) 551

33.2.1 Properties 551

33.2.2 Applications 552

33.2.2.1 Electronics 552

33.2.2.2 Fuel cells 552

33.2.2.3 Adsorbents 552

33.2.2.4 Photodetectors 552

33.2.2.5 Textiles 552

33.2.2.6 Biomedical 553

33.3 TRANSITION METAL DICHALCOGENIDES (TMDCs) 554

33.3.1 Properties 555

33.3.2 Applications 556

33.3.2.1 Electronics 556

33.3.2.2 Photovoltaics 556

33.3.2.3 Piezoelectrics 557

33.3.2.4 Sensors 557

33.3.2.5 Filtration 557

33.3.2.6 Batteries 557

33.3.2.7 Fiber lasers 557

33.4 MXENES 558

33.4.1 Properties 558

33.4.2 Applications 560

33.4.2.1 Catalysts 561

33.4.2.2 Batteries 562

33.4.2.3 Gas storage media 562

33.4.2.4 Sensors 564

33.5 BOROPHENE 565

33.5.1 Properties 565

33.5.2 Applications 565

33.6 PHOSPHORENE 566

33.6.1 Properties 567

33.6.1.1 Fabrication methods 568

33.6.1.2 Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices 568

33.6.2 Applications 568

33.6.2.1 Electronics 569

33.6.2.2 Batteries 569

33.6.2.3 Photodetectors 570

33.6.2.4 Sensors 570

33.7 GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4) 571

33.7.1 Properties 571

33.7.2 Synthesis 572

33.7.3 C2N 572

33.7.4 Applications 572

33.7.4.1 Electronics 572

33.7.4.2 Filtration membranes 573

33.7.4.3 Photocatalysts 573

33.7.4.4 Batteries (LIBs) 573

33.7.4.5 Sensors 573

33.8 GERMANENE 573

33.8.1 Properties 574

33.8.2 Applications 574

33.8.2.1 Electronics 574

33.8.2.2 Batteries 574

33.9 GRAPHDIYNE 575

33.9.1 Properties 576

33.9.2 Applications 576

33.9.2.1 Electronics 576

33.9.2.2 Batteries 576

33.9.2.3 Separation membranes 577

33.9.2.4 Water filtration 577

33.9.2.5 Photocatalysts 577

33.9.2.6 Photovoltaics 577

33.10 GRAPHANE 577

33.10.1 Properties 578

33.10.2 Applications 578

33.10.2.1 Electronics 578

33.10.2.2 Hydrogen storage 578

33.11 RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2) 579

33.11.1 Properties 579

33.11.2 Applications 579

33.11.2.1 Electronics 580

33.12 SILICENE 580

33.12.1 Properties 580

33.12.2 Applications 581

33.12.2.1 Electronics 581

33.12.2.2 Photovoltaics 582

33.12.2.3 Thermoelectrics 582

33.12.2.4 Batteries 582

33.12.2.5 Sensors 582

33.13 STANENE/TINENE 582

33.13.1 Properties 583

33.13.2 Applications 583

33.13.2.1 Electronics 583

33.14 TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE 584

33.14.1 Properties 585

33.14.2 Applications 585

33.14.2.1 Electronics 585

33.15 ANTIMONENE 585

33.15.1 Properties 585

33.15.2 Applications 586

33.16 DIAMENE 586

33.16.1 Properties 586

33.16.2 Applications 586

33.17 INDIUM SELENIDE 586

33.17.1 Properties 586

33.17.2 Applications 587

33.17.2.1 Electronics 587

33.18 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS 587

34 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 589

35 REFERENCES 595

Tables

Table 1. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell into 2020. 39

Table 2. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2030. 41

Table 3. Main graphene producers in North America. 49

Table 4. Main graphene producers in Europe. 50

Table 5: Consumer products incorporating graphene. 52

Table 6: Graphene investments and financial agreements. 54

Table 7. Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets. 56

Table 8. Graphene market challenges. 62

Table 9. Assessment of impact from COVID-19 by end user market. Key: Low, little impact and market will continue to grow. Medium, market impacted to some degree affecting growth prospects over next 1-2 years. High: Market significantly impacted. 63

Table 10: Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof. 69

Table 11. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs. 71

Table 12. Graphene quantum dot producers. 74

Table 13. Assessment of graphene production methods. 79

Table 14. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Europe. 83

Table 15. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in North America. 84

Table 16. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Asia-Pacific. 85

Table 17: Accumulated number of patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018. 88

Table 18. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2030. 90

Table 19: Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2010-2019. 92

Table 20: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019. 93

Table 21: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2018. 95

Table 22: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019. 96

Table 23: CVD graphene film capacity by producer, 2010-2018/ 000s m2. 97

Table 24: Types of graphene and typical prices. 101

Table 25: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer. 103

Table 26: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer. 104

Table 27: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer. 105

Table 28: Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer. 106

Table 29: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer. 108

Table 30: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer. 108

Table 31: Graphene ink pricing by producer. 109

Table 32. Market overview for graphene in 3D printing. 110

Table 33. Scorecard for graphene in 3D printing. 110

Table 34. Market and applications for graphene in 3D printing. 111

Table 35: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030. 114

Table 36: Product developers in graphene 3D printing. 115

Table 37. Market overview for graphene in adhesives. 118

Table 38. Scorecard for graphene in adhesives. 118

Table 39. Market and applications for graphene in adhesives. 119

Table 40: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030. 122

Table 41: Product developers in graphene adhesives. 123

Table 42. Market overview for graphene in automotive. 124

Table 43. Scorecard for graphene in automotive. 124

Table 44. Market and applications for graphene in automotive. 125

Table 45: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2030. 128

Table 46: Product developers in the graphene automotive market. 129

Table 47. Applications of nanomaterials in batteries. 135

Table 48. Market overview for graphene in batteries. 140

Table 49. Scorecard for graphene in batteries. 140

Table 50. Market drivers for use of nanomaterials in batteries. 141

Table 51. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof. 143

Table 52. Market and applications for graphene in batteries. 144

Table 53: Estimated demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030. 148

Table 54: Product developers in graphene batteries. 150

Table 55. Market overview for graphene in composites. 155

Table 56. Scorecard for graphene in fiber-based polymer composite parts. 155

Table 57. Market and applications for graphene in fiber-based composite parts. 156

Table 58. Market and applications for graphene in metal matrix composites. 160

Table 59. Global market for graphene in composites 2018-2030, tons. 161

Table 60: Product developers in graphene composites. 162

Table 61. Market overview for graphene in conductive inks. 168

Table 62. Scorecard for graphene in conductive inks. 168

Table 63. Market and applications for graphene in conductive inks. 169

Table 64. Comparative properties of conductive inks. 172

Table 65: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027. 174

Table 66: Product developers in graphene conductive inks. 175

Table 67. Market overview for graphene in construction. 178

Table 68. Scorecard for graphene in construction. 178

Table 69. Graphene for cement. 179

Table 70. Graphene for asphalt bitumen. 181

Table 71: Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2030. 182

Table 72: Graphene product developers in construction. 183

Table 73. Market overview for graphene in wearable electronics and displays. 185

Table 74. Scorecard for graphene in wearable electronics and displays. 185

Table 75. Market and applications for graphene in electronics. 186

Table 76: Comparison of ITO replacements. 188

Table 77: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics, 2018-2030. 188

Table 78: Product developers in graphene-based electronics. 190

Table 79. Market overview for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits. 193

Table 80. Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors. 193

Table 81. Scorecard for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits. 193

Table 82. Market and applications for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits. 194

Table 83: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2030. 197

Table 84: Product developers in graphene transistors and integrated circuits. 198

Table 85. Market overview for graphene in memory devices. 200

Table 86. Scorecard for graphene in memory devices. 200

Table 87. Market and applications for graphene in memory devices. 201

Table 88: Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2030. 203

Table 89: Product developers in graphene memory devices. 204

Table 90. Market overview for graphene in filtration. 206

Table 91. Scorecard for graphene in filtration. 206

Table 92. Market and applications for graphene in filtration. 207

Table 93: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030. 212

Table 94: Graphene companies in filtration. 213

Table 95. Market overview for graphene in fuel cells. 217

Table 96. Scorecard for graphene in fuel cells. 217

Table 97. Market and applications for graphene in fuel cells. 218

Table 98: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030. 222

Table 99: Product developers in graphene fuel cells. 223

Table 100. Market overview for graphene in life sciences and medicine. 224

Table 101. Scorecard for graphene in drug delivery. 225

Table 102. Scorecard for graphene in imaging and diagnostics. 225

Table 103. Scorecard for graphene in medical implants. 226

Table 104. Scorecard for graphene in medical biosensors. 227

Table 105. Scorecard for graphene in woundcare. 227

Table 106. Market and applications for graphene in life sciences and medicine. 230

Table 107: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030. 235

Table 108: Product developers in graphene life sciences and biomedicine. 237

Table 109. Market overview for graphene in lighting. 241

Table 110. Scorecard for graphene in lighting. 241

Table 111. Market and applications for graphene in lighting. 242

Table 112: Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2030. 244

Table 113: Product developers in graphene lighting. 245

Table 114. Market overview for graphene in lubricants. 247

Table 115. Nanomaterial lubricant products. 247

Table 116. Scorecard for graphene in lubricants. 248

Table 117. Market and applications for graphene in lubricants. 249

Table 118: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030. 251

Table 119: Product developers in graphene lubricants. 253

Table 120. Market overview for graphene in oil and gas. 256

Table 121. Scorecard for graphene in oil and gas. 256

Table 122. Market and applications for graphene in oil and gas. 257

Table 123: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030. 259

Table 124: Product developers in graphene oil and gas. 261

Table 125. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings. 263

Table 126. Scorecard for graphene in paints and coatings. 263

Table 127. Market and applications for graphene in paints and coatings. 264

Table 128: Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2030. 267

Table 129: Product developers in graphene paints and coatings. 269

Table 130. Market overview for graphene in photonics. 275

Table 131. Scorecard for graphene in photonics. 275

Table 132. Market and applications for graphene in photonics. 276

Table 133: Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2030. 279

Table 134: Product developers in graphene photonics. 281

Table 135. Market overview for graphene in photovoltaics. 283

Table 136. Scorecard for graphene in photovoltaics. 284

Table 137. Market and applications for graphene in photovoltaics. 284

Table 138: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030. 287

Table 139: Product developers in graphene solar. 289

Table 140. Market overview for graphene in rubber and tires. 291

Table 141. Scorecard for graphene in rubber and tires. 291

Table 142. Market and applications for graphene in rubber and tires. 292

Table 143: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030. 295

Table 144: Product developers in rubber and tires. 297

Table 145. Market overview for graphene in sensors. 300

Table 146. Scorecard for graphene in sensors. 301

Table 147. Market and applications for graphene in sensors. 301

Table 148: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030. 306

Table 149: Product developers in graphene sensors. 307

Table 150. Market overview for graphene in smart textiles and apparel. 312

Table 151. Scorecard for graphene in smart textiles and apparel. 312

Table 152. Market and applications for graphene in smart textiles and apparel. 313

Table 153: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030. 318

Table 154: Graphene product developers in smart textiles and apparel. 319

Table 155. Market overview for graphene in supercapacitors. 324

Table 156. Scorecard for graphene in supercapacitors. 324

Table 157: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. 325

Table 158. Market and applications for graphene in supercapacitors. 325

Table 159: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030. 328

Table 160: Product developers in graphene supercapacitors. 330

Table 161: Graphene producers and types produced. 333

Table 162: Graphene producers target market matrix. 337

Table 163: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix. 340

Table 164. Sensor surface. 447

Table 165. Market opportunity assessment for main graphene applications. 528

Table 166: 2D materials types. 544

Table 167. Comparative properties of BNNTs and CNTs. 547

Table 168: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 567

Table 169: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials. 588

Table 170: Categorization of nanomaterials. 594

Figures

Figure 1. Demand for graphene, by market, 2019. 36

Figure 2. Demand for graphene, by market, 2030. 38

Figure 3. Demand for graphene, 2018-2030, tons. 42

Figure 4. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). Low estimate. 43

Figure 5. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). Medium estimate. 44

Figure 6. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). High estimate. 45

Figure 7: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2019. 46

Figure 8: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2019. 47

Figure 9. Main graphene producers in Asia-Pacific. 48

Figure 10: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2019. 50

Figure 11: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2018. 52

Figure 12: Graphene layer structure schematic. 67

Figure 13: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG. 67

Figure 14: Graphite and graphene. 68

Figure 15: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. 69

Figure 16: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots. 71

Figure 17. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1-4). 72

Figure 18. Graphene quantum dots. 74

Figure 19. Fabrication methods of graphene. 76

Figure 20. TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF. 77

Figure 21: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd. 78

Figure 22. Schematic illustration of the main graphene production methods. 79

Figure 23: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018. 89

Figure 24. Demand for graphene, 2018-2030, tons. 91

Figure 25: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019. 94

Figure 26: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019. 97

Figure 27: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil. 103

Figure 28. Applications of graphene in 3D printing. 114

Figure 29: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030. 115

Figure 30. CNCTArch lightweight mounting for digital signalling. 116

Figure 31. Applications of graphene in adhesives. 121

Figure 32: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030. 122

Figure 33: Graphene Adhesives. 123

Figure 34. Applications of graphene in automotive. 127

Figure 35: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2030. 128

Figure 36: Supercar incorporating graphene. 129

Figure 37. Graphene anti-corrosion primer. 130

Figure 38. Graphene-R Brake pads. 131

Figure 39: Antistatic graphene tire. 131

Figure 40. Graphene engine oil additives. 132

Figure 41. Annual cobalt demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2030. 137

Figure 42. Annual lithium demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2030. 138

Figure 43. Costs of batteries to 2030. 139

Figure 44. Applications of graphene in batteries. 148

Figure 45: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030. 149

Figure 46. Apollo Traveler graphene-enhanced USB-C / A fast charging power bank. 150

Figure 47. 6000mAh Portable graphene batteries. 151

Figure 48. Real Graphene Powerbank. 152

Figure 49. Graphene Functional Films - UniTran EH/FH. 153

Figure 50. Applications of graphene in composites. 159

Figure 51. Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030. 162

Figure 52. Graphene bike. 163

Figure 53. Graphene lacrosse equipment. 163

Figure 54. Graphene-based suitcase made from recycled plastic. 164

Figure 55. Aros Create. 165

Figure 56. Grays graphene hockey sticks. 166

Figure 57. Applications of graphene in conductive inks. 173

Figure 58: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2030. 174

Figure 59: BGT Materials graphene ink product. 175

Figure 60: Printed graphene conductive ink. 176

Figure 61: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink. 176

Figure 62. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete. 179

Figure 63: Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2030. 182

Figure 64. Graphene asphalt additives. 183

Figure 65. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus. 183

Figure 66: Demand for graphene in electronics, 2018-2030. 189

Figure 67: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application. 190

Figure 68. Applications of graphene in transistors and integrated circuits. 196

Figure 69: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2030. 197

Figure 70. Graphene IC in wafer tester. 198

Figure 71: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right). 199

Figure 72: Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2030. 203

Figure 73. Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random-access memory (RRAM). 204

Figure 74. Applications of graphene in filtration. 211

Figure 75: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030. 212

Figure 76. Graphene anti-smog mask. 213

Figure 77. Graphene filtration membrane. 214

Figure 78. Water filer cartridge. 214

Figure 79. Applications of graphene in fuel cells. 221

Figure 80: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030. 222

Figure 81. Graphene-based E-skin patch. 224

Figure 82. Flexible and transparent bracelet that uses graphene to measure heart rate, respiration rate etc. 230

Figure 83. Applications of graphene in life sciences and medicine 234

Figure 84: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030. 235

Figure 85. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing. 238

Figure 86: Graphene Frontiers' Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel. 238

Figure 87: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor. 239

Figure 88. Applications of graphene in lighting. 244

Figure 89: Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2030. 245

Figure 90. Graphene LED bulbs. 246

Figure 91. Applications of graphene in lubricants. 251

Figure 92: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030. 252

Figure 93. Tricolit spray coating. 253

Figure 94. Graphenoil products. 254

Figure 95. Applications of graphene in oil and gas. 259

Figure 96: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030. 260

Figure 97: Directa Plus Grafysorber. 261

Figure 98: Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2030. 268

Figure 99. Cryorig CPU cooling system with graphene coating. 269

Figure 100: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate. 270

Figure 101. 23303 ZINCTON GNC graphene paint. 271

Figure 102. Graphene-enhanced anti-corrosion aerosols under their Hycote brand. 271

Figure 103. Scania Truck head lamp brackets ACT chamber 6 weeks, equivalent to 3y field use. Piece treated with GO to the left together with different non-GO coatings. 272

Figure 104. Schematic of graphene heat film. 272

Figure 105. Applications of graphene in photonics. 279

Figure 106: Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2030. 280

Figure 107. All-graphene optical communication link demonstrator operating at a data rate of 25 Gb/s per channel. 281

Figure 108. Applications of graphene in photovoltaics. 287

Figure 109: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030. 288

Figure 110. Graphene coated glass. 289

Figure 111. Applications of graphene in rubber and tires. 295

Figure 112: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030. 296

Figure 113. Eagle F1 graphene tire. 297

Figure 114. Graphene floor mats. 298

Figure 115. Vittoria Corsa G+ tire. 298

Figure 116. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring. 300

Figure 117. Applications of graphene in sensors. 305

Figure 118: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030. 306

Figure 119. AGILE R100 system. 307

Figure 120. Graphene fully packaged linear array detector. 308

Figure 121: GFET sensors. 308

Figure 122. Graphene is used to increase sensitivity to middle-infrared light. 310

Figure 123. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel. 317

Figure 124: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030. 318

Figure 125. Colmar graphene ski jacket. 319

Figure 126. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer's breathing. 320

Figure 127. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey. 320

Figure 128: Inov-8 graphene shoes. 321

Figure 129. Graphene Functional Membranes - UniTran GM. 322

Figure 130. Graphene jacket. 322

Figure 131. Applications of graphene in supercapacitors. 328

Figure 132: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030. 329

Figure 133. Skeleton Technologies supercapacitor. 330

Figure 134: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger. 331

Figure 135. Graphene heating films. 344

Figure 136. Graphene flake products. 352

Figure 137. AIKA Black-T. 355

Figure 138. Printed graphene biosensors. 363

Figure 139. Brain Scientific electrode schematic. 375

Figure 140. Graphene battery schematic. 394

Figure 141. BioStamp nPoint. 457

Figure 142. MEIJO eDIPS product. 459

Figure 143. Nanotech Energy battery. 473

Figure 144. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production. 475

Figure 145. TEM images of carbon nanobrush. 476

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