1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 30

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 32

3.1 BIOPLASTICS 32

3.1.1 What are bioplastics? 32

3.1.2 Market trends 33

3.1.3 Global production to 2030 34

3.1.4 Main producers and global production capacities 36

3.1.4.1 Producers 36

3.1.4.2 By bioplastic type 37

3.1.4.3 By region 41

3.1.5 Global demand for bioplastics 2020, by market 42

3.1.6 Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the bioplastics market and future demand 46

3.1.7 Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market 46

3.2 NATURAL FIBERS 48

3.2.1 What are natural fibers? 48

3.2.2 Benefits of natural fibers over synthetic 51

3.2.3 Markets and applications for natural fibers 52

3.2.4 Market drivers for natural fibers 54

3.2.5 Challenges 55

3.2.6 Covid-19 impact 56

4 THE GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET 57

4.1 Global production 57

4.2 The importance of plastic 57

4.3 Issues with plastics use 58

5 THE BIOPLASTICS MARKET 59

5.1 Drop-in bio-based plastics 59

5.2 Novel bio-based plastics 60

5.3 Advantages and disadvantages compared to traditional plastics 60

5.4 Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics 62

5.5 BIODEGRADABLE AND COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS 63

5.5.1 Biodegradability 64

5.5.2 Compostability 65

5.6 SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS 66

5.6.1 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 66

5.6.1.1 Market analysis 66

5.6.1.2 Producers 68

5.6.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) 69

5.6.2.1 Market analysis 69

5.6.2.2 Producers 70

5.6.3 Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) 70

5.6.3.1 Market analysis 70

5.6.3.2 Producers 71

5.6.4 Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) 71

5.6.4.1 Market analysis 71

5.6.4.2 Comparative properties to PET 72

5.6.4.3 Producers 73

5.6.5 Polyamides (Bio-PA) 73

5.6.5.1 Market analysis 73

5.6.5.2 Producers 74

5.6.6 Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) 75

5.6.6.1 Market analysis 75

5.6.6.2 Producers 76

5.6.7 Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers 76

5.6.7.1 Market analysis 76

5.6.7.2 Producers 77

5.6.8 Polyethylene (Bio-PE) 77

5.6.8.1 Market analysis 77

5.6.8.2 Producers 78

5.6.9 Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 78

5.6.9.1 Market analysis 78

5.6.9.2 Producers 78

5.7 NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS 80

5.7.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) 80

5.7.1.1 Market analysis 80

5.7.1.2 Commercially available PHAs 81

5.7.1.3 Producers 82

5.7.2 Polysaccharides 83

5.7.2.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 83

5.7.2.1.1 Market analysis 83

5.7.2.1.2 Producers 84

5.7.2.2 Cellulose nanocrystals 85

5.7.2.2.1 Market analysis 85

5.7.2.2.2 Producers 86

5.7.2.3 Cellulose nanofibers 86

5.7.2.3.1 Market analysis 86

5.7.2.3.2 Producers 88

5.8 MARKETS FOR BIOPLASTICS 90

5.8.1 Packaging 92

5.8.2 Consumer products 94

5.8.3 Automotive 95

5.8.4 Building & construction 96

5.8.5 Textiles 97

5.8.6 Electronics 98

5.8.7 Agriculture and horticulture 99

6 THE NATURAL FIBERS MARKET 102

6.1 Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers 103

6.2 Advantages of natural fibers 104

6.3 Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose) 105

6.3.1 Seed fibers 105

6.3.1.1 Cotton 105

6.3.1.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 106

6.3.1.2 Kapok 106

6.3.1.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 107

6.3.1.3 Luffa 107

6.3.2 Bast fibers 109

6.3.2.1 Jute 109

6.3.2.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 110

6.3.2.2 Hemp 111

6.3.2.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 111

6.3.2.3 Flax 112

6.3.2.3.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 113

6.3.2.4 Ramie 114

6.3.2.4.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 115

6.3.2.5 Kenaf 115

6.3.2.5.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 116

6.3.3 Leaf fibers 117

6.3.3.1 Sisal 117

6.3.3.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 118

6.3.3.2 Abaca 118

6.3.3.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 119

6.3.4 Fruit fibers 120

6.3.4.1 Coir 120

6.3.4.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 120

6.3.4.2 Banana 121

6.3.4.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 122

6.3.4.3 Pineapple 123

6.3.5 Stalk fibers from agricultural residues 124

6.3.5.1 Rice fiber 124

6.3.5.2 Corn 124

6.3.6 Cane, grasses and reed 125

6.3.6.1 Switch grass 125

6.3.6.2 Sugarcane (agricultural residues) 126

6.3.6.3 Bamboo 127

6.3.6.3.1 Production volumes 2018-2030 128

6.3.6.4 Fresh grass (green biorefinery) 128

6.3.7 Modified natural polymers 128

6.3.7.1 Mycelium 128

6.3.7.2 Chitosan 131

6.3.7.3 Alginate 131

6.4 Animal (fibrous protein) 133

6.4.1 Wool 133

6.4.1.1 Alternative wool materials 134

6.4.1.1.1 Producers 134

6.4.2 Silk fiber 134

6.4.2.1 Alternative silk materials 135

6.4.2.1.1 Producers 135

6.4.3 Leather 135

6.4.3.1 Alternative leather materials 136

6.4.3.1.1 Producers 136

6.4.4 Down 137

6.4.4.1 Alternative down materials 137

6.4.4.1.1 Producers 137

6.5 MARKETS FOR NATURAL FIBERS 138

6.5.1 Composites 138

6.5.1.1 Applications 138

6.5.1.2 Natural fiber injection moulding compounds 140

6.5.1.2.1 Properties 140

6.5.1.2.2 Applications 140

6.5.1.3 Non-woven natural fiber mat composites 140

6.5.1.3.1 Automotive 141

6.5.1.3.2 Applications 141

6.5.1.4 Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites 141

6.5.1.5 Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds 142

6.5.1.6 Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats 143

6.5.1.6.1 Flax 143

6.5.1.6.2 Kenaf 143

6.5.1.7 Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites 144

6.5.2 Aerospace 144

6.5.2.1 Market overview 144

6.5.3 Automotive 145

6.5.3.1 Market overview 145

6.5.3.2 Applications of natural fibers 149

6.5.4 Building/construction 150

6.5.4.1 Market overview 150

6.5.4.2 Applications of natural fibers 150

6.5.5 Sports and leisure 151

6.5.5.1 Market overview 151

6.5.6 Textiles 152

6.5.6.1 Market overview 152

6.5.6.2 Consumer apparel 153

6.5.6.3 Geotextiles 153

6.5.7 Packaging 154

6.5.7.1 Market overview 155

6.6 NATURAL FIBERS GLOBAL PRODUCTION 157

6.6.1 Overall global fibers market 157

6.6.2 Plant-based fiber production 159

6.6.3 Animal-based natural fiber production 160

7 BIOPLASTICS COMPANY PROFILES 162 (165 COMPANY PROFILES)

8 NATURAL FIBER PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPER PROFILES 281 (123 COMPANY PROFILES)

9 REFERENCES 420


TABLES

Table 1. Market drivers and trends in bioplastics. 33

Table 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons. 34

Table 3. Global production capacities, by producers. 36

Table 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons. 37

Table 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2019-2025, by region, tons. 41

Table 6. Types of natural fibers. 48

Table 7. Markets and applications for natural fibers. 52

Table 8. Market drivers for natural fibers. 54

Table 9. Issues related to the use of plastics. 58

Table 10. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics. 60

Table 11. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications. 62

Table 12. Type of biodegradation. 64

Table 13. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis. 66

Table 14. Lactic acid producers and production capacities. 68

Table 15. PLA producers and production capacities. 68

Table 16. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis. 69

Table 17. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers. 70

Table 18. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis. 70

Table 19. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers. 71

Table 20. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis. 71

Table 21. PEF vs. PET. 72

Table 22. FDCA and PEF producers. 73

Table 23. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis. 73

Table 24. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities. 74

Table 25. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis. 75

Table 26. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands. 76

Table 27. Bio-PBS market analysis. 76

Table 28. Leading PBS producers and production capacities. 77

Table 29. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis. 77

Table 30. Leading Bio-PE producers. 78

Table 31. Bio-PP market analysis. 78

Table 32. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities. 78

Table 33. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 80

Table 34. Commercially available PHAs. 81

Table 35. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers. 82

Table 36. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis. 83

Table 37. Leading MFC producers and capacities. 84

Table 38. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis. 85

Table 39. Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer. 86

Table 40. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis. 86

Table 41. CNF production capacities and production process, by producer. 88

Table 42. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers. 103

Table 43. Typical properties of natural fibers. 104

Table 44. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 105

Table 45. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 106

Table 46. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 107

Table 47. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 109

Table 48. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 111

Table 49. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 112

Table 50. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 114

Table 51. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 115

Table 52. Overview of sisal fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 117

Table 53. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 118

Table 54. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 120

Table 55. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 121

Table 56. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 123

Table 57. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 124

Table 58. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 124

Table 59. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications. 125

Table 60. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size. 126

Table 61. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 127

Table 62. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 130

Table 63. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 131

Table 64. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size. 131

Table 65. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 133

Table 66. Alternative wool materials producers. 134

Table 67. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size. 134

Table 68. Alternative silk materials producers. 135

Table 69. Alternative leather materials producers. 136

Table 70. Alternative down materials producers. 137

Table 71. Applications of natural fiber composites. 138

Table 72. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites. 140

Table 73. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites. 141

Table 74. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites. 142

Table 75. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds. 143

Table 76. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats. 143

Table 77. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 144

Table 78. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market. 146

Table 79. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 147

Table 80. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry. 149

Table 81. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 150

Table 82. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector. 150

Table 83. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 151

Table 84. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 152

Table 85. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 155

Table 86. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types. 162

Table 87. Lactips plastic pellets. 231

Table 88. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes. 338

Table 89. Oji Holdings CNF products. 381


FIGURES

Figure 1. Total global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics, all types, 000 tons. 33

Figure 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons by biodegradable/non-biodegradable types. 35

Figure 3. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons. 39

Figure 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by type. 39

Figure 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2030, by type. 40

Figure 6. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2019. 41

Figure 7. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2025. 42

Figure 8. Current and future applications of biobased and sustainable plastics. 43

Figure 9. Global demand for bioplastics by end user market, 2020. 44

Figure 10. Global production capacities for bioplastics by end user market 2019-2030, tons. 46

Figure 11. Challenges for the bioplastics market. 46

Figure 12. Global plastics production 1950-2018, millions of tons. 57

Figure 13. Coca-Cola PlantBottle®. 60

Figure 14. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics. 61

Figure 15. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025. 73

Figure 16. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019, 1,000 tons. 90

Figure 17. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2020, 1,000 tons. 91

Figure 18. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2030, in 1,000 tons. 92

Figure 19. PHA bioplastics products. 93

Figure 20. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in packaging 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 94

Figure 21. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in consumer products 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 95

Figure 22. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in automotive 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 96

Figure 23. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in building and construction 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 97

Figure 24. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in textiles 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 98

Figure 25. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in electronics 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 99

Figure 26. Biodegradable mulch films. 100

Figure 27. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in agriculture 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons. 101

Figure 28. Types of natural fibers. 102

Figure 29. Cotton production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT). 106

Figure 30. Kapok production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 107

Figure 31. Luffa cylindrica fiber. 108

Figure 32. Jute production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT). 110

Figure 33. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT). 112

Figure 34. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 113

Figure 35. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 115

Figure 36. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 116

Figure 37. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 118

Figure 38. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 119

Figure 39. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT). 121

Figure 40. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT). 122

Figure 41. Pineapple fiber. 124

Figure 42. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT). 128

Figure 43. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam. 129

Figure 44. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials. 130

Figure 45. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix. 132

Figure 46. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel. 144

Figure 47. Car door produced from Hemp fiber. 145

Figure 48. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers. 146

Figure 49. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel. 153

Figure 50. Coir mats for erosion control. 154

Figure 51. Global fiber production in 2019, by fiber type, million MT and %. 157

Figure 52. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2030. 158

Figure 53. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, MT. 160

Figure 54. Animal based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, million MT. 161

Figure 55. Algiknit yarn. 167

Figure 56. Bio-PA rear bumper stay. 178

Figure 57. PHA production process. 214

Figure 58. IPA synthesis method. 239

Figure 59. Compostable water pod. 248

Figure 60. Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing. 265

Figure 61. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles. 269

Figure 62. Corbion FDCA production process. 275

Figure 63. Pluumo. 283

Figure 64. Algiknit yarn. 286

Figure 65. Amadou leather shoes. 287

Figure 66. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel. 290

Figure 67. MEDICELLU™. 290

Figure 68. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet. 292

Figure 69. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric. 292

Figure 70. CNF nonwoven fabric. 293

Figure 71. Roof frame made of natural fiber. 296

Figure 72. Beyond Leather Materials product. 299

Figure 73. Natural fibres racing seat. 302

Figure 74. Cellugy materials. 307

Figure 75. nanoforest-S. 310

Figure 76. nanoforest-PDP. 311

Figure 77. nanoforest-MB. 311

Figure 78. Celish. 313

Figure 79. Trunk lid incorporating CNF. 314

Figure 80. ELLEX products. 316

Figure 81. CNF-reinforced PP compounds. 317

Figure 82. Kirekira! toilet wipes. 317

Figure 83. Color CNF. 318

Figure 84. Rheocrysta spray. 322

Figure 85. DKS CNF products. 322

Figure 86. Mushroom leather. 326

Figure 87. CNF based on citrus peel. 327

Figure 88. Citrus cellulose nanofiber. 328

Figure 89. Filler Bank CNC products. 331

Figure 90. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing. 332

Figure 91. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE). 334

Figure 92. CNF products from Furukawa Electric. 335

Figure 93. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials. 340

Figure 94. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer). 341

Figure 95. CNF gel. 343

Figure 96. Block nanocellulose material. 343

Figure 97. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu. 344

Figure 98. Marine leather products. 345

Figure 99. Dual Graft System. 348

Figure 100. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins. 349

Figure 101. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended). 349

Figure 102. Kami Shoji CNF products. 350

Figure 103. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side). 352

Figure 104. BioFlex process. 357

Figure 105. Chitin nanofiber product. 360

Figure 106. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products. 361

Figure 107. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 362

Figure 108. Cellulomix production process. 364

Figure 109. Nanobase versus conventional products. 364

Figure 110. MOGU-Wave panels. 367

Figure 111. CNF slurries. 368

Figure 112. Range of CNF products. 368

Figure 113. Reishi. 370

Figure 114. Nippon Paper Industries' adult diapers. 377

Figure 115. Leather made from leaves. 378

Figure 116. Nike shoe with beLEAF™. 378

Figure 117. CNF clear sheets. 381

Figure 118. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product. 382

Figure 119. XCNF. 387

Figure 120. CNF insulation flat plates. 389

Figure 121. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 392

Figure 122. Lyocell process. 395

Figure 123. North Face Spiber Moon Parka. 396

Figure 124. Spider silk production. 398

Figure 125. 2 wt.? CNF suspension. 399

Figure 126. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 400

Figure 127. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet. 400

Figure 128. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material. 401

Figure 129. Sulapac cosmetics containers. 403

Figure 130. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF. 407

Figure 131. CNF resin products. 409

Figure 132. Vegea production process. 411

Figure 133. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test. 413

Figure 134. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film. 414

Figure 135. Worn Again products. 416

Figure 136. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process. 418