Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids

Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids

  • January 2017
  • 297 pages
  • BCC Research
Report ID: 1080060

Use this report to:
- Analyze how the composition of various fats and oils transform into the range, quality and types of acids produced and the applications for which those acids can be used.
- Explore the various attributes of different acid types and how these types compete with synthetic formed products from the petrochemical route and the major applications outlets.
- Outline the impact of green credentials on the environmental profile of the chemical-using industry.
- Study the developments and research that demonstrate the green credentials of the oleochemical family.


Highlights
- The global market for natural fatty acids should reach $16.2 billion by 2021 from $12.4 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.6%, from 2016 to 2021.
- The derivatives market should reach $8.5 billion by 2021 from $6.2 billion in 2016 at a CAGR of 6.8%, from 2016 to 2021.
- The personal care, cleaning products, polymerization, and vulcanization market should reach $6.2 billion by 2021 from $5.0 million in 2016 at a CAGR of 4.7%, from 2016 to 2021.


STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This BCC Research study is focused on the natural-based fatty acid industry, which is part of the wider oleochemical industry. Even though natural-based fatty acid has been a workhorse in the chemical industry for many years, it is a brightly burning star today, fueled by the green chemistry agenda. This is because the raw material consumed to produce the oleochemicals is mainly based on material that is renewable, sustainable and readily biodegradable.

This study reviews how the industry has recovered since the economic slowdown of 2008 and 2009 and how it will develop and change over the next five years through 2021. The analysis looks at the basic oleochemical business of fatty acids derived from fats and oils, and touches upon the impact of the biodiesel industry on the market. It presents historical demand data for 2015, estimates for 2016 and projections for 2021. The report also reviews the main markets for the major acid types from stearic acid, distilled fatty acids, polyunsaturated (including tall oil fatty acid: TOFA), fractionated fatty acids and monounsaturated oleic acid. In addition, the analysis
Highlights market sectors; reviews latest technology developments, including the patent space; provides a regional perspective; examines the changing landscape of raw material and reviews the byproduct glycerin market.

Market shares provided by leading and active merchant players are profiled. The report looks at how government incentives and regulations have impacted the industry, especially with respect to self-sufficient energy resources and animal fat classification. It also assesses the impact of rising raw material prices, tight supply and demand curves for certain acid chains, the uncertainty of the economy in many of the developed countries around the world, and the impact of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) accreditation.


REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The fatty acid industry provides multiple products that are used in a wide range of industries due to the functionality they offer as a result of their molecule structure. A typical fatty acid has two reactive sites; the minor is the double bonds situated along the straight alkyl chain, while the major is a carboxylic acid group at the start of the chain. Thus, the molecule is a starting material for a number of reactions changing the functionality and performance dependent on the fatty acid derivative formed.

Fatty acids are excellent hydrophobes, a key material for a number of very important surfactant groups. Oleochemicals will be a vital resource to meet the ingredient needs of a number of specialty chemical formulators and consumer-facing companies. Oleochemicals service different types of markets. More industrial-oriented segments require ingredients that can achieve or even surpass the performance specification of the application at a price that is affordable, while the more wellbeing- and health-oriented markets require ingredients that are not only suitable for human contact, be that externally on the skin or internally such as orally digested, but are also sourced from renewable and natural-grown origins. In both cases, ingredients consumed must meet all safety, health and environmental regulations and legalization. There are a number of governmental tax break incentives for using biomass to generate energy and produce fuel products.

There are also export tax incentives for major tropical oil plantation countries to use local companies to develop downstream manufacturing capabilities utilizing locally sourced materials. Combined, these incentives will have a profound effect on the industry at various points along the value chain. The self-sufficient energy incentives will not only drive up the cost of raw material for producers, but will also tighten the supply, particularly for tallow-based economies. The export taxes will not only make it prohibitive for foreign companies—particularly those located outside Asia-Pacific—to source the high in-demand, medium-chain, fatty acid raw material, but will also mean that local producers gain an unfair monetary advantage over the competition. This is because derivatives of these fatty acids or refined acids, such as fractionated and distilled cuts, are exempt from this export tax.

The exponential growth in certain segments of the oleochemical family led to the devastation of important ecological systems that cannot be recovered. In addition, it resulted in the diversion of not only vital food ingredients, but also the arable land used to grow the crops—such was the eagerness of a number of companies to benefit from the high-value demand. The industry is now going to great lengths to not only meet the growing needs of the market, but to do this in a way that is sustainable while minimizing the impact of the food supply chain.


CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
Some 25 years ago the oleochemical industry was in the heartland of mainland Europe and North America, with a small foothold in Asia-Pacific. Today, the main industry has shifted toward Asia-Pacific, with over 65% of overall capacity. Another revolution has taken place today with upstream plantation owners seeking routes and applications for their crops by taking over established and longtime oleochemical firms or moving products globally for the same price, regardless of destination.

While a global business, fatty acids have a high regional tendency due to the fact that transporting fatty acids a long distance is expensive as acids are prone to air oxidation, color reversion, odor reversion, metal pick-up and partial crystallization. Factors that play a role in the selection of raw material used in oleochemical production include availability, fatty acid composition, quality and price. A number of sources are interchangeable, such as coconut oil or palm kernel oil or palm oil for tallow, but it can result in challenges around meeting certain specifications as it is not a direct like-for-like substitution.

An important part of the profitability of the fatty acid industry is the outlets for the byproduct glycerin that is automatically generated when either fats or oils are hydrolyzed. The amount generated varies depending on the starting material, with the harder oils generating more glycerin than the majority of animal fats or softer oils. In recent years, the glycerin market has been flooded by supply from the biodiesel market, causing a collapse in prices, which has greatly impacted the profitability of fatty acid operators. The oversupply has encouraged efforts to develop new markets for this byproduct.


To this end, the study will be useful for the following audiences:
- Marketing managers.
- Senior oleochemical executives.
- Decision-makers from international governments.
- Traders and distributors of chemical products.
- Plant and operations directors.
- Engineering and technology manufacturers and providers.
- Process and technology support advisors.
- Plantation owners and renders managers.
- Logistical, supply chain and e-business specialists.
- Corporate, project and trade finance specialists
- Strategic planners and forecasters.
- New product and business developers.
- Decision-makers from the chemical and energy industries/end users (oil, gas, petrochemical, fertilizer and chemical companies).
- Trade associations.
- Environmental consultants.
- Equipment manufacturers and process designers.
- Venture capitalists, those involved in research and development (R&D) work and academic institutions.



SCOPE AND FORMAT
As the populations of developing nations gain a higher standard of living, these communities will demand more premium and Westernized products. Oleochemicals, such as fatty acids, will be a vital link in the supply chain as their outstanding functionality and versatility make them ideal to be used in a multitude of applications. In addition, the high reactivity of this acid enables the production of a range of derivatives that can be tailored to meet the needs of a number of end-user industries, which use the formulations to produce the ideal blend of functionality and performance.

The range of derivatives is dependent on the reaction site used. Derivatives can be produced using the acid functionality, such as saponification, esterification, ethoxylation or amination, while derivatives based on the unsaturation include isomerization, dimerization, epoxidation and hydrogenation acids. Fatty acids and their derivatives have a range of functionality that can be used to support the move away from the petrochemical-based platform that is reliant on the rapidly reducing fossil fuel industry since all the easy oil has been extracted and the remaining oil is more inaccessible, more remote and located in more inhospitable environments.
While the equivalent renewable biorefinery-type platform has a long way to go to be commercially viable and suitable to replace the petrochemical platform, oleochemicals will be a major contributor to such development. For example, ester derivatives have the functionality of being surfactant as well as possess lubricity and solvency, which deliver the following benefits:
- The ability to reduce the surface tension between a polar and an apolar medium, which is important for cleaning and emulsification.
- The ability to reduce friction, which is needed for lubricant applications.
- The ability to dissolve chemicals, which is key to providing a greener solvent substitution for cleaning.


This report provides an understanding of how the composition of various fats and oils transform into the range, quality and types of acids produced and the applications for which those acids can be used. It explores the various attributes of different acid types and how these cuts compete with synthetic formed products from the petrochemical route and the major applications outlets.

This study will reveal the developments and research that demonstrate the green credentials of the oleochemical family and how these credentials are changing the environmental profile of the chemical-using industry. This is helpful to the transformation from that of a major polluter to an industry working in harmony with its environment to meet the needs of the current generation without detrimental effects on its surroundings that would impact the generations to come.


The study is divided into a number of sections and covers the following fatty acid types:
- Stearic acid.
- Distilled fatty acids.
- Fractionated fatty acids.
- Polyunsaturated acids, including tall oil fatty acids.
- Oleic acids.

The fatty acid oleochemical business is important for the following reasons:
- It is a major source of surfactants, which are starting materials for the detergent, cleaning and personal care industries.
- The functionality and performance combination enables formulators to deliver tailored solutions to meet a variety of customers’ needs.
- It is an important cornerstone in the development of a sustainable chemical platform to reduce the reliance on fossil fuel-based chemistry.
- It promotes the development of green chemistry that is environmentally friendly.
- Conversion of solid fats and liquid vegetable oils into a straight chain saturated or unsaturated carboxylic acid can be used in edible and nonedible markets.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
The insights and analysis contained within this report are based on information gathered from a cross section of oleochemical manufacturers, end users and other informed sources. Primary interview data were combined with secondary information gathered through an extensive review of published literature, such as trade magazines, trade associations, company literature, conference material, patented technology, social media sites and online databases to produce the baseline market estimates contained in this report and building on the data collected in the previous review. With 2015 as the baseline, changes within each application were discussed and projections for each segment were developed for 2016 through 2021. Key findings were summarized, as well as tested, confirmed and debated with important contacts in the industry. BCC Research understands the market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective, which enabled the extraction and discussion of major developments and the subsequent impact on the markets.

The analytical methodologies used to generate market estimates are based on a projection of world economy, world trade and technology developments. All dollar projections presented in this report are based on 2015 constant dollars.


ANALYSTS’ CREDENTIALS
This updated report is based on an earlier (2013) report by Ronald van Rossum and John Joe Harkin. Mr. Harkin is a Ph.D. chemist who graduated from the University of Manchester (U.K.), and is an independent business intelligence consultant. He has 21 years of experience providing business insight to a range of companies in the chemical and related industries. The majority of his industrial career was spent supporting business development activities on a global basis for the market-leading oleochemical firm at that time. He is also the co-author of BCC Reports CHM039B Oilfield Process Chemicals: Global Markets and CHMO46B Global Market for Catalyst Regeneration.

The analyst responsible for updating the report is Andrew McWilliams, a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. Mr. McWilliams is the author or co-author of numerous other BCC studies, including the previously updated version of this report and studies in related fields, such as ENV011A The U.S. Market for Clean Technologies, CHM020E Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications, CHM039D Oilfield Process Chemicals: Global Markets, and EGY051A Petroleum Fuel Optimization Technologies.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 4
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 7
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS,THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY 12
INTRODUCTION 12
CHANGES IN THE OLEOCHEMICAL WORLD 13
RECENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BRIEF 14
WHAT ARE OLEOCHEMICALS? 15
TABLE 1 AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALS 16
FIGURE 1 BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 17
NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN 17
FIGURE 2 SATURATED FATTY ACID 18
FIGURE 3 UNSATURATED FATTY ACID 18
TABLE 2 NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 19
TABLE 3 NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 20
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA) 20
Castor Oil 21
Branched Fatty Acids 21
Glycerin(e) 22
FIGURE 4 GLYCERIN MOLECULE 22
Biodiesel and Glycerin 22
Synthetic Glycerin and the Glycerin Market 23
FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES 24
FATTY ALCOHOLS 24
SOAPS 25
DIMERS 26
ESTERS 26
FIGURE 5 ESTER MOLECULE 26
Esterification/Transesterification Process 27
AMIDES 27
FIGURE 6 ETHANAMIDE 27
AMINES 28
FIGURE 7 AMINES 28
SULFONATES 29
FIGURE 8 SULFONATE 29
FUNCTIONALITY AND BUILDING BLOCKS 30
NONIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM METHYL ESTERS 30
BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS 31
RAW MATERIALS 31
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS 31
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 32
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 2015 (%) 32
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2015 AND 2021 (%) 33
CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS IN OLEOCHEMICALS 34
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF OILS AND FATS, 2000 AND 2015 (%) 35
PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS: REGIONAL DIFFERENCES AND DEMAND 37
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 37
CHOICE OF RAW MATERIALS 38
FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN 39
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS NATURAL OILS AND FATS 39
Nomenclature 39
Composition, Saturated versus Unsaturated, MUFA versus PUFA 40
Properties 41
TABLE 6 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATS 41
COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN 43
Properties 43
SATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF COMMON NAMES 44
Arachidic Acid (C20) 44
Behenic Acid (C22) 44
Capric Acid (C10) 44
Caproic Acid (C6) 45
Caprylic Acid (C8) 45
Lauric Acid (C12) 46
Myristic Acid (C14) 46
Palmitic Acid (C16) 46
Stearic Acid (C18) 47
TABLE 7 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS 47
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY COMMON NAMES 47
Erucic Acid (C22:1) 48
Gadoleic Acid (C20:1) 48
Linoleic Acid (C18:2) 49
Linolenic Acid (C18:3) 49
Myristoleic Acid (C14:1) 49
Oleic Acid (C18:1) 50
Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1) 50
Ricinoleic Acid (C18:1OH) 51
TABLE 8 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 51
PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN AND TOFA 51
Glycerin 51
TABLE 9 PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN 53
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA) 53
TABLE 10 EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES OF TOFA 53
END USES, APPLICATIONS 54
THE MANUFACTURING LANDSCAPE 54
Hydrolysis or Splitting 54
FIGURE 12 SPLITTING COLUMN 55
Segregation/Separation 56
Distillation of Fatty Acids 56
Hydrogenation (Hardening) 57
Partial Hydrogenation 57
GLYCERIN PURIFICATION 57
MANUFACTURERS OF PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 58
Which Technology to Use 58
FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS AND THE INDUSTRY 60
A Changing Manufacturer's Landscape 60
Mergers and Acquisitions, Strategic Changes 61
TABLE 11 SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY 64
TABLE 12 CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS 66
LEGISLATION 71
TRENDS AND IMPACTS 72
REGIONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DEVELOPMENTS 72
RENEWABLES-GREEN CHEMISTRY-SUSTAINABILITY 74
FIGURE 13 RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL PRODUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN 76
CHAPTER 4 OVERVIEW OF MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS 79
INTRODUCTION 79
CHANGING NATURE OF OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCERS 79
OLEOCHEMICAL-BASED FAMILY 80
OLEOCHEMICAL COMPARED TO FOSSIL FUEL-BASED PETROCHEMICALS 80
GREEN CHEMISTRY 81
SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL INDUSTRY 81
MANUFACTURING LANDSCAPE 83
TABLE 13 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 14 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 84
FATTY ACID GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OVERVIEW 85
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (%*) 85
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%) 85
APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 86
TABLE 15 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 86
ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 87
TABLE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2014-2017 (%) 87
FIGURE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2014 TO 2017 (%) 88
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES 88
PRODUCT OVERVIEW 89
FATTY ACID TYPES 89
TABLE 17 SPLIT OF FATTY ACID TYPES ACROSS REGIONS IN TERMS OF CONSUMPTION, 2015 (%) 90
DISTILLED FATTY ACIDS 90
TABLE 18 EXAMPLES OF DISTILLED FATTY ACIDS 91
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 91
TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 92
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR DFA AND PUFA BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR DFA AND PUFA BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDS 93
TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDS 93
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FFA BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FFA BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 94
STEARIC ACID 95
TABLE 23 EXAMPLES OF STEARIC FATTY ACIDS 95
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STEARIC ACID BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STEARIC ACID BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
OLEIC ACID 97
TABLE 25 EXAMPLES OF OLEIC FATTY ACIDS 97
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OLEIC ACID BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OLEIC ACID BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98 PRICES 99
TABLE 27 AVERAGE PRICE OF FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2021 ($/METRIC TON) 100
DEMAND BY APPLICATION 100
CAPTIVE COMPARED TO MERCHANT 100
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FATTY ACID BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FATTY ACID BY SEGMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
ANIMAL FEED 102
TABLE 29 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ANIMAL FEED BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ANIMAL FEED BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES 104
TABLE 30 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS 105
TABLE 31 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
EMULSION POLYMERIZATION 107
TABLE 32 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR EMULSION POLYMERIZATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR EMULSION POLYMERIZATION BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 107
LUBRICANTS 108
TABLE 33 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR LUBRICANTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR LUBRICANTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
ORE PROCESSING 109
TABLE 34 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ORE PROCESSING CHEMICALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ORE PROCESSING CHEMICALS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
RESINS 110
TABLE 35 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RESIN BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RESIN BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
TEXTILE SOFTENERS 112
TABLE 36 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR TEXTILE SOFTENERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR TEXTILE SOFTENERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
VULCANIZATION 113
TABLE 37 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RUBBER PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RUBBER PRODUCTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 114
WAXES 114
TABLE 38 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR WAX PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 31 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR WAX PRODUCTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 115
DERIVATIVES 115
FIGURE 32 MAJOR FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES 116
TABLE 39 COMPARISON OF MINERAL OIL VS. FATTY ACID ESTERS FOR LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS 117
TABLE 40 TYPICAL DIMER AND ISOSTEARIC ACIDS YIELD (%) 118
TABLE 41 COMMON TYPES OF FATTY ACID HYDROPHOBES 119
TABLE 42 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DERIVATIVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 33 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DERIVATIVES BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
OTHERS 121
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
FIGURE 34 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
SURFACTANT ALTERNATIVES BASED ON FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 122
RAW MATERIAL OVERVIEW 122
SPLIT OF FATS AND OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID 123
TABLE 44 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR FATTY ACID, 2015-2021 (%) 123
FIGURE 35 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR FATTY ACID, 2015-2021 (%) 124
TABLE 45 CHOICE OF MATERIAL FOR SELECTED FATTY ACIDS 124
FIGURE 36 SPLIT ACROSS TROPICAL OILS, 2015-2021 (%) 124
TABLE 46 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONNES) 126
FIGURE 37 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, 2007-2015 (MILLION METRIC TONNES) 126
BIODIESEL IMPACT ON RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY 126
ANIMAL RAW MATERIAL 127
TABLE 47 GLOBAL ANIMAL FATS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
FIGURE 38 GLOBAL ANIMAL FATS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TROPICAL OILS OVERVIEW 129
TABLE 48 GLOBAL TROPICAL OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 20121 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 39 GLOBAL TROPICAL OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 130
SOFT OILS OVERVIEW 131
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 40 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 132
CRUDE TALL OIL 133
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CRUDE TALL OIL MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CRUDE TALL OIL MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TOTAL RAW MATERIAL PICTURE FOR THE FATTY ACID INDUSTRY 135
TABLE 51 RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (%) 136
TABLE 52 FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
GLYCERIN 137
GLYCERIN GRADES 138
GLYCERIN PRODUCTION 138
TABLE 53 GLYCERIN PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS) 139
BIODIESEL IMPACT ON GLYCERIN MARKET 139
TABLE 54 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2008-2015 (%/MILLION MT) 139
FIGURE 42 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2008-2015 (%) 139
GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS 141
TABLE 55 MAJOR ESTABLISHED GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS 141
New Outlets for Glycerin 142
TABLE 56 EMERGING GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS 142
OVERVIEW OF GLYCERIN PRICES 143
TABLE 57 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2015 (%) 143
FIGURE 43 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2015 (%) 144
TABLE 58 GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
FIGURE 44 GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
CHAPTER 5 LEGISLATION 147
INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES AND LEGISLATION 148
HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE (GMP) 148
ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY (EHS) 148
GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION AND LABELING OF CHEMICALS (GHS) 148
FIGURE 45 FIRST EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING 149
FIGURE 46 SECOND EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING 149
EUROPE 150
Raw Materials, Renewables, Energy 150
Animal Byproduct Regulation (ABPR) 150
TABLE 59 ABPR RISK CATEGORIES 151
Renewable Energy and Biofuels 153
Reach 155
VOC Solvents Emissions 156
AMERICAS 157
North America 157
Renewable Fuel Policies 157
Safe Cosmetics Act 158
EU ABPR Effects NAM/USA 159
Import Regulations 159
Latin America 160
Brazil 160
ASIA 161
Indonesia 161
Palm Oil Stimulation Plans and Regulations 161
Malaysia 162
Import and Export Regulations 163
Renewable Fuels Policy 163
India 164
Import Regulations 164
China 164
Import Regulations 164
CHAPTER 6 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY OF FATTY ACIDS 167
HISTORY 167
FIGURE 47 THE PRINCIPAL MODEL OF THE OIL LAMP HAS REMAINED THE SAME THROUGHOUT HISTORY 167
COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 167
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF FATTY ACIDS 168
SHORT-, MIDDLE- AND LONG-CHAIN FREE FATTY ACIDS 169
TABLE 60 EXAMPLES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND TWO EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 170
Conjugated Linoleic Acid 170
FIGURE 48 VISUALIZATION CIS AND TRANS 171
TABLE 61 EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 171
SOURCES OF FATTY ACIDS 172
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 173
NATURAL SOURCES OF FATS AND OILS 173
Vegetable 173
Animal 174
DIFFERENT SOURCES AND EXCEPTIONS 174
PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACIDS FROM FATS AND OILS 175
SPLITTING OR HYDROLYSIS 175
Saponification or Soap Boiling 175
FIGURE 50 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF SOAP BOILING PROCESS 175
Twitchell Process 176
FIGURE 51 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TWITCHELL PROCESS 176
Autoclave or In-batch Splitting 177
FIGURE 52 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF AUTOCLAVE OR IN-BATCH SPLITTING 177
Colgate-Emery Process 177
FIGURE 53 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF COLGATE-EMERY SPLITTING PROCESS 178
Splitting of Specific Delicate Unsaturated Fatty Acids 178
FIGURE 54 FATTY ACID AND GLYCERIN PRODUCING REACTIONS 178
Byproduct Glycerin (aka Glycerol) 179
SEGREGATION, PURIFICATION AND HYDROGENATION 179
Segregation versus Separation 180
Distilled Fatty Acids 180
FIGURE 55 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF DISTILLATION PROCESS 180
Segregation of Raw Fatty Acids into Solids and Liquids 181
Historic Method: Pressing 181
Emersol Process 181
Solexol Process 182
Wet Separation Process 182
Follow-Up 182
Hydrogenation 183
FIGURE 56 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF HYDROGENATION PROCESS 183
GLYCERIN BACKGROUNDS AND PROCESSES 184
CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY 184
GLYCERIN RECOVERY 184
PURIFICATION 185
CHEMISTRIES OF GLYCERIN 186
USES OF GLYCERIN 186
FATTY ACIDS REACTIONS AND DERIVATIVES 187
SALT FORMATION 187
ESTER FORMATION 187
FIGURE 57 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF A COMMON ESTERIFICATION PROCESS 188
Numerous Applications 188
Transesterification 189
FIGURE 58 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS 189
NITROGEN DERIVATIVES OF FATTY ACIDS 190
REDUCTION 191
HALOGENATION 192
REACTIONS ON THE HYDROCARBON CHAIN 192
Sulfation 192
Sulfonation 193
Sulfurization 193
Oxidation 193
Polymerization 193
Combustion 194
Reactions of Castor Oil and Its Fatty Acids 195
CHAPTER 7 PATENTS AND NEW TECHNOLOGY TRENDS IN FATTY ACID TECHNOLOGY 197
INTRODUCTION 197
HIGHLIGHTS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS 197
ALGAE 198
ENZYMES AND MICROORGANISMS 199
HIGH ERUCIC ACID RAPESEED (HEAR) 200
HIGH OLEIC SUNFLOWER (HOS) 200
GLYCERIN 201
PATENT SEARCH 202
TABLE 62 FATTY ACID PATENTS, BY ASSIGNEE/INVENTOR 203
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 215
INTRODUCTION 215
MAJOR GLOBAL NATURAL FATTY ACID PLAYERS 216
FIGURE 59 MARKET SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERS, 2015 (%) 217
COMPANY PROFILES 218
AARHUSKARLSHAMN AB (AAK) 218
Recent Developments 219
A. AZEVEDO INDUSTRIA E COMERCIO DE OLEOS LTDA. 219
ABITEC CORP. (ASSOCIATED BRITISH INGREDIENT TECHNOLOGIES) 219
Recent Developments 220
ACIDCHEM INTERNATIONAL SDN. BHD. 220
ACME-HARDESTY 221
ADEKA CORPCORP. 221
ADVANCED ORGANIC MATTER S.A. (AOM) 222
AKZONOBEL/BOXING CHEMICAL CHINA 222
ALEMDAR KIMYA ENDUSTRISI A.S. 223
ALLOCCO 223
AMBROGIO PAGANI SPA 224
ARIZONA CHEMICAL (KRATON) 224
Products and Applications 224
Recent Developments 225
ASHLAND INC. 226
BAERLOCHER GMBH 226
Recent Developments 227
BAKRIE SUMATERA 227
Recent Developments 227
BASF CORP. 228
Recent Developments 228
BEHN-MEYER HOLDING AG 228
BERG+SCHMIDT GMBH & CO. KG 229
Recent Developments 229
BRAIDO; GRUPO BRAIDO INDUSTRIA AGROQUIMICA 230
BRASWEY S.A. INDUSTRIA E COMERCIO 230
CAILA Y PARES, SA 231
CHEMITHON CORP. 231
CHEMOL COMPANY INC. 231
CHEMPRI OLEOCHEMICALS 232
CHEMREZ TECHNOLOGIES INC. 232
Recent Developments 232
CHIBA FATTY ACID CO. LTD. 233
CHRISTEYNS OLEOCHEMICALS (CHRISTEYNS NV) 233
Recent Developments 234
CISADANE RAYA CHEMICALS, PT (CRC) 234
COLGATE-PALMOLIVE (INDIA) LTD. 235
COMMODITY TRADING S.R.O. 235
CREMER OLEO 235
Recent Developments 236
CRODA INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 237
Recent Developments 237
CROWN IRON WORKS COMPANY 237
Recent Developments 238
DAVY PROCESS TECHNOLOGY LTD. 238
DERICHEM (MALAYSIA) SDN. BHD. 238
DERIVES RESINIQUES ET TERPENIQUES SA, LES (DRT) 239
DESMET BALLESTRA OLEO 239
Recent Developments 239
DONGMA OILS AND FATS/DONGMA OLEOCHEMICALS CO. LTD. 240
DUA KUDA INDONESIA (PT) 240
EASTMAN CHEMICAL 240
ECOGREEN OLEOCHEMICALS PTE 241
Recent Developments 241
ELEVANCE RENEWABLE SCIENCES INC. 242
Recent Developments 242
EMERY OLEOCHEMICALS 243
Recent Developments 244
ESTEARINA PARANAENSE, CIA. COMPANHIA 245
EVONIK INDUSTRIES AG 245
EXCELVITE. 246
FACI SPA 246
FATTY CHEMICAL (MALAYSIA) SDN. BHD. 247
FELDA GLOBAL VENTURES HOLDINGS SDN BHD (FGV) 247
FELDA IFFCO SDN. BHD. 248
FELDA IFFCO LLC. 248
FELDA IFFCO OIL PRODUCTS SDN. BHD. 249
FERRO CORP. 249
FINECHEM SPECIALTY LTD. 249
FORCHEM OY 250
Recent Developments 250
FPG OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD. 251
GEORGIA-PACIFIC LLC (GP) 251
GLYCONA S.R.O. 251
Recent Developments 252
GODREJ INDUSTRIES LTD. 252
Recent Developments 252
HANGZHOU OLEOCHEMICALS CO. LTD. 253
Recent Developments 253
HARIMA CHEMICALS 253
Recent Developments 254
HB INTERNATIONAL SA 254
HOBUM OLEOCHEMICALS GMBH 255
HUDONG HOUSEHOLD AUXILIARIES COMPANY LIMITED 255
INTER-CONTINENTAL OILS AND FATS PTE. LTD. (ICOF) 256
IFFCO EMIRATES REFINING COMPANY LTD. 256
IMPERIAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS (THAILAND) CO. LTD. (IIC) 257
IMPERIAL-OEL-IMPORT (IOI) 257
INDUSTRIA CAMPINEIRA DE SABÃO E GLICERINA (CAMPINEIRA) 257
INTERMED SDN. BHD. 258
IOI OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES BHD. 258
ACIDCHEM INTERNATIONAL SDN. BHD. 258
Recent Developments 259
INDUSTRIAL OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS, (IOP) 259
JAYANT AGRO-ORGANICS LIMITED 260
JIANGSU JINMA OIL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO. LTD. 260
JIANGSU NEW HUAMING OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD. 260
JIANGSU YONGLIN OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD. 261
JINAN HAOHUA INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 261
JOCIL LIMITED 262
KAO OLEOCHEMICAL 262
Kao Penang Group 262
Recent Developments 263
KASHIMA CHEMICAL CO. LTD. 263
KEMIRA CHEMIE GES.MBH 263
KERRY OLEOCHEMICAL SHANGHAI CO. LTD. 264
Recent Developments 264
KEWALRAM OILS SDN. BHD./KEWALRAM CHANRAI 265
KLK OLEOCHEMICALS (KUALA LUMPUR KEPONG BERHAD) 265
Products and Brands 266
Recent Developments 266
LAMBERTI ITALIA SPA 267
LASCARAY S.A. 267
LG CHEMICALS 268
LURGI (AIR LIQUIDE) 268
JJ-Lurgi Engineering (M) Sdn. Bhd. 269
MATERIA OLEOCHEMICALS ARGENTINA 269
MATERIA HNOS. S.A.C.I.F. 269
MATRIX OLEOCHEM SDN. BHD. 270
MAZZONI LB 270
INGEVITY 270
MERIDIONAL TCS IND. E COM DE OLEOS S/A 271
Recent Developments 271
MIGASA 271
MIRACEMA NUODEX INDUSTRIA QUIMICA LTDA. 272
MISSION NEWENERGY LTD. 272
MUDPETROL S.R.L. 273
MUSIM MAS 273
Recent Developments 274
MIYOSHI OIL AND FAT CO. LTD. 274
NANJING XINXU INDUSTRY LIMITED COMPANY 274
NEW JAPAN CHEMICAL CO. LTD. (NJC) 275
NIMIR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 275
NORDISCHE OLWERKE (WALTER) CARROUX GMBH 276
OLEO CHEMICAL A.S. 276
OLEOCHEM INDIA PVT. LTD. 276
OLEOMUD, COMPANIA QUIMICA 277
OLEON 277
OLEON N.V. 277
Recent Developments 278
OLEOQUIMICA BRAZIL 279
OXITENO 279
Recent Developments 280
PACIFIC OLEO/PACIFIC OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD. 280
PAN CENTURY OLEOCHEMICALS SDN. BHD. 281
PT. PERKEBUNAN NUSANTARA III 281
Recent Developments 281
PERMATA HIJAU GROUP 282
PENTAL 282
Recent Developments 283
PETER GREVEN GMBH & CO. KG 283
Recent Developments 283
PILIPINAS KAO 284
PMC BIOGENIX 284
Recent Developments 285
PRIGNITZER CHEMIE GMBH 285
PROCTER & GAMBLE CHEMICALS 285
Recent Developments 286
PT. BINA KARYA PRIMA 286
PTT GLOBAL CHEMICAL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED (PTTCH) 287
QUIMIC S.A. DE C.V. 287
RAJ CHEMICALS 287
RIKEVITA SDN BHD 288
(RUGAO) SHUANGMA CHEMICAL CO. LTD. 288
SAKAMOTO ORIENT CHEMICALS CORP. (SOCC) 289
SAKAMOTO YAKUHIN KOGYO CO. LTD. 289
SEGEZHA PPM 289
SERVOTECH INDIA LTD. 290
SETUZA A.S. 290
SHANGHAI SOAP CO. LTD. 290
SICHUAN TIANYU OLEOCHEMICAL CO. LTD. 291
SIME DARBY 291
Recent Developments 292
SIM ESTEARINA 292
SINAR OLEOCHEMICAL INTERNATIONAL, PT SOCI MAS 292
SMARANA OLEO CHEMICALS SDN. BHD. 293
SO.G.I.S INDUSTRIA CHIMICA S.P.A. 293
TERRAVIA 293
Recent Developments 294
SOUTHERN ACIDS BERHAD 294
SREE RAYALASEEMA ALKALIES AND ALLIED CHEMICALS LTD. 295
PT SUMI ASIH 295
SUNSHINE OLEOCHEMICALS LTD. 296
SWEE KEE M&E AND CONSTRUCTION SDN. BHD. 296
TAIKO PALM OLEO 296
TALLOW PRODUCTS PTY. LTD. 297
TECK GUAN OLEOCHEMICAL 297
THAI CASTOR OIL INDUSTRIES COMPANY LTD. 298
THAI OLEOCHEMICALS 298
TIMUR OLEOCHEMICALS 299
TRIVEDI ENTERPRISES PVT. LTD. 299
TWIN RIVERS TECHNOLOGIES (FELDA COMPANY) 299
UNION DERIVAN, SA (UNDESA) 300
Recent Developments 300
UNITED COCONUT CHEMICALS INC. 301
VANTAGE OLEOCHEMICALS 301
VVF LTD. 302
Recent Developments 302
WILMAR INTERNATIONAL LIMITED 303
Recent Developments 304
WUJIANG JINYU LANOLIN CO. LTD. 304
YIHAI (LIANYUNGANG)OLEOCHEMICAL IND. 304
YUEYANG CH-CHENG OLEOCHEMICALS CO. LTD. 305
ZIBO FENBAO CHEMICAL CO. LTD/ZIBO KEHONG GREASE CO. LTD. 305



LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALS 16
TABLE 2 NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 19
TABLE 3 NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 20
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 32
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 37
TABLE 6 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATS 41
TABLE 7 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS 47
TABLE 8 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 51
TABLE 9 PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN 53
TABLE 10 EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES OF TOFA 53
TABLE 11 SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY 64
TABLE 12 CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS 66
TABLE 13 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 84
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (%*) 85
TABLE 15 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 86
TABLE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2014-2017 (%) 87
TABLE 17 SPLIT OF FATTY ACID TYPES ACROSS REGIONS IN TERMS OF CONSUMPTION, 2015 (%) 90
TABLE 18 EXAMPLES OF DISTILLED FATTY ACIDS 91
TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 92
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR DFA AND PUFA BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDS 93
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FFA BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 23 EXAMPLES OF STEARIC FATTY ACIDS 95
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STEARIC ACID BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 25 EXAMPLES OF OLEIC FATTY ACIDS 97
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OLEIC ACID BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 27 AVERAGE PRICE OF FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2021 ($/METRIC TON) 100
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FATTY ACID BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 29 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ANIMAL FEED BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 30 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 31 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 32 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR EMULSION POLYMERIZATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 33 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR LUBRICANTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 34 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ORE PROCESSING CHEMICALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 35 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RESIN BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
TABLE 36 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR TEXTILE SOFTENERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 37 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RUBBER PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 38 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR WAX PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 39 COMPARISON OF MINERAL OIL VS. FATTY ACID ESTERS FOR LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS 117
TABLE 40 TYPICAL DIMER AND ISOSTEARIC ACIDS YIELD (%) 118
TABLE 41 COMMON TYPES OF FATTY ACID HYDROPHOBES 119
TABLE 42 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DERIVATIVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 44 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR FATTY ACID, 2015-2021 (%) 123
TABLE 45 CHOICE OF MATERIAL FOR SELECTED FATTY ACIDS 124
TABLE 46 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONNES) 126
TABLE 47 GLOBAL ANIMAL FATS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 48 GLOBAL TROPICAL OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 20121 ($ MILLIONS) 130
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CRUDE TALL OIL MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 51 RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (%) 136
TABLE 52 FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS' CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
TABLE 53 GLYCERIN PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS) 139
TABLE 54 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2008-2015 (%/MILLION MT) 139
TABLE 55 MAJOR ESTABLISHED GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS 141
TABLE 56 EMERGING GLYCERIN APPLICATIONS 142
TABLE 57 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2015 (%) 143
TABLE 58 GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 59 ABPR RISK CATEGORIES 151
TABLE 60 EXAMPLES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND TWO EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 170
TABLE 61 EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 171
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 173
TABLE 62 FATTY ACID PATENTS, BY ASSIGNEE/INVENTOR 203



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS,THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 9
FIGURE 1 BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 17
FIGURE 2 SATURATED FATTY ACID 18
FIGURE 3 UNSATURATED FATTY ACID 18
FIGURE 4 GLYCERIN MOLECULE 22
FIGURE 5 ESTER MOLECULE 26
FIGURE 6 ETHANAMIDE 27
FIGURE 7 AMINES 28
FIGURE 8 SULFONATE 29
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OILS AND FATS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 2015 (%) 32
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2015 AND 2021 (%) 33
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF OILS AND FATS, 2000 AND 2015 (%) 35
FIGURE 12 SPLITTING COLUMN 55
FIGURE 13 RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL PRODUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN 76
FIGURE 14 SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2015 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%) 85
FIGURE 16 REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2014 TO 2017 (%) 88
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR DFA AND PUFA BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FFA BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STEARIC ACID BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OLEIC ACID BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FATTY ACID BY SEGMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ANIMAL FEED BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR EMULSION POLYMERIZATION BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR LUBRICANTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR ORE PROCESSING CHEMICALS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RESIN BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR TEXTILE SOFTENERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR RUBBER PRODUCTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 114
FIGURE 31 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR WAX PRODUCTS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 32 MAJOR FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES 116
FIGURE 33 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR DERIVATIVES BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 34 GLOBAL FATTY ACIDS MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
FIGURE 35 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR FATTY ACID, 2015-2021 (%) 124
FIGURE 36 SPLIT ACROSS TROPICAL OILS, 2015-2021 (%) 124
FIGURE 37 TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, 2007-2015 (MILLION METRIC TONNES) 126
FIGURE 38 GLOBAL ANIMAL FATS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
FIGURE 39 GLOBAL TROPICAL OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 40 GLOBAL SOFT OILS MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CRUDE TALL OIL MARKET FOR FATTY ACIDS BY REGION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 42 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2008-2015 (%) 139
FIGURE 43 AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2015 (%) 144
FIGURE 44 GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
FIGURE 45 FIRST EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING 149
FIGURE 46 SECOND EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELING 149
FIGURE 47 THE PRINCIPAL MODEL OF THE OIL LAMP HAS REMAINED THE SAME THROUGHOUT HISTORY 167
FIGURE 48 VISUALIZATION CIS AND TRANS 171
FIGURE 50 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF SOAP BOILING PROCESS 175
FIGURE 51 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TWITCHELL PROCESS 176
FIGURE 52 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF AUTOCLAVE OR IN-BATCH SPLITTING 177
FIGURE 53 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF COLGATE-EMERY SPLITTING PROCESS 178
FIGURE 54 FATTY ACID AND GLYCERIN PRODUCING REACTIONS 178
FIGURE 55 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF DISTILLATION PROCESS 180
FIGURE 56 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF HYDROGENATION PROCESS 183
FIGURE 57 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF A COMMON ESTERIFICATION PROCESS 188
FIGURE 58 SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS 189
FIGURE 59 MARKET SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERS, 2015 (%) 217
Country=World Industry=Chemical ParentIndustry=Chemical Date=201701 Topic=MarketReport Publisher=BCCResearch Price=6000