Gas Sensors and Gas Metering: Applications and Markets

Gas Sensors and Gas Metering: Applications and Markets

  • January 2017
  • 149 pages
  • BCC Research
Report ID: 297997

Use this report to:
- Learn about the basic concepts, principles of operation, and equipment used for gas metering, gas sensing/monitoring, secondary gas flow instrumentation, and sampling.
- Evaluate the application envelopes of various gas flow metering technologies.
- Analyze the current status of gas meters and sensor/monitors in commercial markets.
- Learn about design criteria and the importance of accuracy in gas flow meters, sensors/monitors, and secondary flow instrumentation industry.


Highlights
- The global market for gas flow meters, sensors/monitors, and secondary flow instrumentation will grow from nearly $5.3 billion in 2016 to around $6.9 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3% for the period of 2016-2021.
- Gas flow sensors/monitors dominated the market and will grow from nearly $2.6 billion in 2016 to $3.4 billion by 2021, rising at a CAGR of 6.1%.
- The gas flow meters segment is expected to increase from nearly $2.1 billion in 2016 to around $2.6 billion by 2021 with a CAGR of 4.5%.



INTRODUCTION


STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an update of an earlier (2014) BCC Research study on gas metering and gas sensors/monitoring, including instrumentation, process control, and automation systems for different applications. This updated report builds on the earlier work by describing and analyzing developments in the markets for commercial gas meters and gas sensors/monitors since 2014 and developing revised market projections that reflect these developments.


Specific objectives of this report thus include the following:

- Understanding metering requirements.
- Appreciating design criteria and the importance of accuracy.
- Understanding measurement concepts and types of error.
- Understanding the basic concepts, principle of operation, and equipment used for gas metering, gas sensing/monitoring, secondary gas flow instrumentation, and sampling.
- Understanding the typical operations, control functions and record keeping requirements.
- Evaluating the application envelopes of the various gas flow metering technologies.
- Providing a critical evaluation of the current status of gas meter and sensor/monitor commercial markets.
- the role of gas metering and sensing/monitoring in various applications segments, including custody transfer of natural gas, stack and flare systems, utilities, crude oil and natural gas production/ processing, and low gas flow rates (e.g., chemical manufacturing, and metal fabrication and processing).
- Discussing and analyzing the current status and future supply and demand issues for gas meters and sensors/monitors and thus providing consumers with an insight into the dynamics of the business.
- Identifying future business opportunities.



REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
AND
INTENDED AUDIENCE
The market for gas flow meters and gas flow sensors and monitors has experienced considerable changes in the last four years, including internal changes (e.g., as a result of technological developments) and external shifts, particularly the global economic weakness that has persisted since the 2008-2009 recession.

This report provides information useful to anyone concerned with the manufacturing, marketing, operation, and maintenance of gas metering and gas sensing/monitoring systems, including the following:
- Operations engineers.
- Graduate engineers.
- Supervisors.
- Operators.
- Metering specialists/technicians.
- Project developers.
- Government experts from developed and developing countries.
- Technology providers.
- Verifiers/certifiers and validators.
- Financial intermediaries (banks, insurance companies).
- Brokers and traders interested in metering and sensing/monitoring market developments and regulatory trends.
- Law firms.
- Accounting and auditing firms.
- Marketing managers.
- Senior petrochemical executives.

SCOPE OF REPORT
This report presents data on demand for gas metering and gas sensors/monitors for different applications in current U.S. dollars for the major global regions. Market share is presented for all major products, applications, gases, players/regions, and at the global level. Profiles are included for leading suppliers worldwide. The report begins with an overview of gas sensing and monitoring technologies, including a brief history, major products, and a market summary. Subsequent sections describe major gas sensing and monitoring technologies in greater detail, identify key suppliers, and present comprehensive market estimates and projections. A separate chapter examines the geographical structure of the market.


METHODOLOGY
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. BCC Research conducted an extensive international user survey in preparing the previous edition of this report. Users in the following countries were interviewed:
- North America
o U.S.
o Canada.
- Europe
o U.K.
o Germany.
o France.
Asia
o China.
o Japan.
o Singapore.
- Rest of the World
o Central and South America.
o Africa and the Middle East.


BCC Research supplemented the earlier survey’s findings with a literature review and key-informant interviews. The results of this process were combined with BCC Research’s analysis of historical trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) demand and projected trends in major market drivers to obtain the market estimates and projections contained in this report.



INFORMATION SOURCES
Information sources include trade data (national and international), company publicity literature, conference reports, world trade technical journals, and interviews with company representatives.


ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS
Dr. Edward Gobina is the author of the original report upon which this update is based. Dr. Gobina is a research professor in Chemical and Processing Engineering and has more than 18 years of research and teaching experience in environmental engineering, petrochemical reaction engineering, and catalysis and membrane technology. He has been published extensively, with more than 100 relevant publications in international scientific journals. The analyst responsible for updating the report is Andrew McWilliams, a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. Mr. McWilliams is the author of numerous other BCC Research reports, including CHM041E The Global Industrial Gas Business; IAS027D MEMS: Biosensors and Nanosensors; EGY055C Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities; and SMC051D Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Technology: Current and Future Markets.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
HISTORY OF GAS FLOW METERING AND GAS SENSING/MONITORING 10
GAS FLOW METERS 10
GAS ANALYZERS 12
SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION 12
TECHNOLOGIES 12
APPLICATIONS 13
TABLE 1 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR APPLICATIONS FOR GAS FLOW METERING, GAS SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY MARKET SEGMENT 13
MARKET SUMMARY 17
PRODUCT CATEGORY 17
TABLE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (%) 17
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 17
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 18
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 18
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 18
GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS 19
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION MARKET, BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%) 19
CHAPTER 4 GAS SENSING AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES 22
DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 22
EXTRACTIVE MANUAL TECHNIQUES 22
Nitrogen Oxides 22
CO 23
Oxygen 23
Sulfur Dioxide 23
VOCs 23
INSTRUMENTED TECHNIQUES 24
CEMS 24
FIGURE 4 TYPICAL SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR AN ONSTREAM ANALYZER 24
Sample Transport and Conditioning 25
Sample Gas Analysis 26
Wet-Basis Gas Analysis 26
Dry-Basis Gas Analysis 26
Data Acquisition System 27
Cross-Duct (or Cross-Stack) Monitoring Technology 27
System Integration 27
CEMS Applications 28
TABLE 5 CEMENT INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 6 COAL FIRED POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
TABLE 7 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
STACK GAS/SOURCE SAMPLING 29
Stack/Source Sampling Procedure 30
Selection of Sampling Position in the Stack/Source 30
TABLE 8 MINIMUM NUMBER OF TRAVERSE POINTS ACROSS THE STACK 30
Measurement of Gas Flow Rate (Pollutant Emission Rate) 31
Measurement of Stack Gas Velocity 31
Determination of Temperature of Gas 31
TABLE 9 PROBES USED FOR DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE RANGES 31
Determination of Pressure 32
Bourdon 32
Bellows 32
Diaphragm 32
Capacitive or Inductance 32
Resistive, Strain Gauge 32
Piezoelectric 33
Types of Temperature Transmitters 33
FIXED VS. PORTABLE GAS SENSORS AND MONITORS 33
The Basic Fixed System 33
Key Considerations 34
Intrinsically Safe 34
Explosion Proof 34
Fixed Systems Best Practice 35
Basic Portable Gas Detectors 35
Key Considerations 36
Portables Best Practice 36
Advanced Sensors for Multi-Sensor Instruments 37
Other Types of Direct Reading Sensors 37
MICRO- AND NANOSENSORS 37
MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SENSORS 38
MEMS Gas Sensing Technologies 38
Electrochemical Sensors 38
Mass Sensors 38
Applications 39
TABLE 10 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MEMS CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 39
Automotive 39
Life Sciences 39
Environmental Protection 40
Military/Public Safety 40
Industrial Leak Detection and Process Control 40
NANOSENSORS 40
Nano-Gas Sensing Technologies 40
Nanotubes 41
Carbon Nanotubes 41
Other Types of Nanotubes 41
Nanoribbons 42
Nanowires 42
Nano-Cantilevers 43
Nanoparticles 44
Nanoceramics 44
Graphene 45
CHAPTER 5 GAS FLOW METERING: TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETS 48
TECHNOLOGIES 48
TABLE 11 FLOW METER TECHNOLOGIES 48
DP FLOW METERS 48
Orifice Plate 49
Flow Nozzles 49
Venturi Tube 49
FIGURE 5 VENTURI FLOW METER 49
Elbow Meter 50
FIGURE 6 ELBOW FLOW METER 50
PD FLOW METERS 50
Diaphragm Meters 51
Rotary Meters 51
TURBINE FLOW METERS 52
THERMAL MASS FLOW METERS 52
Direct-Heat Flow Meters 53
Externally Heated Flow Meters 53
Heated-Tube Design 53
Bypass-Type Design 54
Air Velocity Probes 55
VARIABLE AREA FLOW METERS 55
Slotted Tube Flow Meters 56
Vane and Piston Flow Meters 56
MFC 57
ANNUBAR 58
CORIOLIS FLOW METERS 58
Tube Designs 59
ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS 60
VORTEX FLOW METER 61
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 61
Optical Flow Meters 61
Sonar-Based Flow Meters 62
SELECTING A FLOW METER 63
Performance Comparisons 63
TABLE 12 COMPARISON OF SELECTED GAS FLOW METER OPTIONS AND COSTS 63
Flow Meter Advantages and Disadvantages 63
TABLE 13 FLOW METER ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 64
The Importance of Accuracy 65
TABLE 14 IMPORTANCE OF DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN GAS FLOW METERING (%) 65
What is Reliability? 65
TABLE 15 IMPORTANCE OF RELIABILITY IN SPECIFYING/PURCHASING GAS FLOW
METERS (%) 66
Other Gas Flow Meter Selection Criteria 66
Installed Base 67
SUPPLIERS 68
TABLE 16 GAS FLOW METER VENDOR LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 68
MARKETS 69
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 69
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 69
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 (%) 69
TABLE 18 GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE/APPLICATION CHART 71
Custody (Ownership) Transfer 71
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 71
Stack Gas Monitoring 72
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STACK GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 72
Flare Gas Flow Metering and Monitoring 72
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLARE GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 73
Utility Applications 73
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 74
CNG 74
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNG FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 75
Low Flow Gas Flow Metering 75
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 76
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 76
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 76
DP 78
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DP GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 78
PD 78
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PD GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 79
Turbine 79
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TURBINE GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 79
Thermal Mass 80
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL MASS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 80
MFCs 80
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MFCS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 81
Annubar 81
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANNUBAR GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 81
Ultrasonic 82
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 82
Coriolis 82
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CORIOLIS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 83
Doppler Vortex 83
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DOPPLER VORTEX GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 83
CHAPTER 6 GAS SENSOR/MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES 85
TECHNOLOGIES 85
IR SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 85
FTIR 86
NDIR Technology 86
SOLID-STATE SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 87
CATALYTIC BEAD SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 87
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 87
Flame Ionization Detection Technology 88
TC Analyzers 88
Electron Capture Detector 88
PIDs 89
Flame Photometric Detector 90
UV Sensing/Monitoring Technology 90
Chemiluminescent Analyzers 90
ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 91
PARAMAGNETIC ANALYZERS 91
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 91
Mass Spectrometry 91
Hot-Wire Anemometers 92
Air Duct Traversing 93
MEMS Sensors 93
Nano-Gas Sensors 94
TABLE 35 NANO-GAS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES 94
Nanotubes 95
Nanoribbons 95
Nanowires 95
Nano-Cantilevers 96
Nanoceramics 97
Graphene Sensors 97
SUPPLIERS 98
TABLE 36 GAS FLOW SENSORS/MONITORS SUPPLIER LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 98
MARKETS 99
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 99
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 99
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 99
Custody Transfer 101
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
Stack Gas Monitoring 102
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STACK GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
Flare Gas Monitoring 103
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLARE GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
Utility Applications 103
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
CNG 104
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNG SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 105
Low Flow Rate Gas 105
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 106
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 107
IR Gas Sensors/Monitors 107
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IR SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 108
Solid-State Gas Sensors 108
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID-STATE SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 108
Catalytic Gas Sensors 109
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CATALYTIC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
Gas Chromatography Sensors 109
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
Electrochemical Gas Sensors 110
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
Paramagnetic Gas Sensors 111
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PARAMAGNETIC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
Chemiluminescence Gas Sensors 111
TABLE 51 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CHEMILUMESCENCE SENSORS/MONITORING BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
UV Gas Sensors 112
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRA-VIOLET SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
CHAPTER 7 SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING TECHNOLOGIES 114
TECHNOLOGIES 114
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 114
TABLE 53 OVERVIEW OF TEMPERATURE SENSORS 115
DENSITY MEASUREMENT 116
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 116
TABLE 54 OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE SENSORS 117
SUPPLIERS 118
TABLE 55 SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION SUPPLIER/VENDOR 118
MARKETS 119
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 119
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 119
Custody (Ownership) Transfer of Natural Gas 120
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN CUSTODY TRANSFER OF NATURAL GAS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Stack Gas Monitoring 121
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION FOR STACK GAS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
Flare Gas Monitoring 121
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN FLARE METERING, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
Utility Applications 122
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN UTILITY APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
CNG 122
TABLE 61 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN CNG APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 123
Low Gas Flow Rate Applications 123
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN LOW GAS FLOW RATE APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 124
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 124
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 124
Temperature Sensors 125
TABLE 64 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TEMPERATURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 126
Pressure Sensors 126
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESSURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 126
Density Measurement 127
TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DENSITY SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 127
CHAPTER 8 MAJOR GEOGRAPHICAL MARKETS 129
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY REGION AND APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 129
CHAPTER 9 PURCHASING CRITERIA 131
FLOW METERS 131
TABLE 68 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF FLOW METERS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 131
GAS SENSORS/MONITORS 132
TABLE 69 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF GAS SENSORS/MONITORS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 132
CHAPTER 10 COMPANY PROFILES 134
THE ABB GROUP (ABB ANALYTICAL) 134
ACCULEX 134
AGILENT 134
ALICAT SCIENTIFIC INC. 135
ALTECH ENVIRONMENT USA 135
AMALGAMATED INSTRUMENTS CO. PTY, LTD. 136
AMETEK INC. 136
ASIA PACIFIC MICROSYSTEMS INC. (APM) 137
AUTOMATIC FLARE SYSTEMS, LTD. 138
BACHARACH INC. 138
BADGER METER 138
BASELINE-MOCON INC. (BASELINE) 139
BROOKS INSTRUMENT 139
CASELLA USA 139
CIDRA 140
CIMTECHNIQUES INC. 140
CITY TECHNOLOGY, LTD. 140
COUNTRONICS 142
DAVIDSON INSTRUMENTS 142
DRAGER SAFETY AG 142
DRSCADA AUTOMATION 143
ELSTER-INSTROMET N.V. 143
EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT 143
ENDRESS+HAUSER INC. 144
FIGARO ENGINEERING INC. 144
FLORITE INTERNATIONAL INC. 144
FREHNIG INSTRUMENTS & CONTROLS 145
GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE (GTI) 145
GE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL 145
GENERAL MONITORS SYSTEMS 146
HONEYWELL INC. 146
HORIBA, LTD. 147
IFM EFECTOR INC. 148
IMPCO TECHNOLOGIES INC. 148
INNOVA AIRTECH INSTRUMENTS A/S 149
INSTRUMART 149
INTERNATIONAL SENSOR TECHNOLOGY 149
J-TEC ASSOCIATES INC. 150
KEP-KESSLER-ELLIS PRODUCTS 150
LAND INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAL 150
MCCROMETER INC. 151
MICRO SYSTEMS & CONTROLS 151
MSA SAFETY 151
QUEST TECHNOLOGIES/3M DETECTION SOLUTIONS 152
R2 CONTROLS INC. 152
SAGE METERING INC. 152
SERVOMEX CO. INC. 153
SIEMENS AG 153
SITRON USA INC. 153
SOUTH WEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SWRI) 154
SPINK CONTROLS 154
SYNECTIC DESIGN, LTD. 154
TELEDYNE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS 155
TOKY ELECTRICAL CO., LTD. 155
YOKOGAWA CORP. OF AMERICA 155
CHAPTER 11 PATENT ANALYSIS 157
FIGURE 13 U.S. GAS SENSOR/MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY PRODUCT TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 157
GAS FLOW METER PATENTS 158
FIGURE 14 U.S. GAS SENSOR FLOW METER PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 158
GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS 159
FIGURE 15 U.S. GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 159
SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS 160
FIGURE 16 U.S. SECONDARY GAS INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY PARAMETER MEASURED (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 160


LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR APPLICATIONS FOR GAS FLOW METERING, GAS SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY MARKET SEGMENT 13
TABLE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (%) 17
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 18
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 19
TABLE 5 CEMENT INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 6 COAL FIRED POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
TABLE 7 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
TABLE 8 MINIMUM NUMBER OF TRAVERSE POINTS ACROSS THE STACK 30
TABLE 9 PROBES USED FOR DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE RANGES 31
TABLE 10 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MEMS CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 39
TABLE 11 FLOW METER TECHNOLOGIES 48
TABLE 12 COMPARISON OF SELECTED GAS FLOW METER OPTIONS AND COSTS 63
TABLE 13 FLOW METER ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 64
TABLE 14 IMPORTANCE OF DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN GAS FLOW METERING (%) 65
TABLE 15 IMPORTANCE OF RELIABILITY IN SPECIFYING/PURCHASING GAS FLOW METERS (%) 66
TABLE 16 GAS FLOW METER VENDOR LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 68
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 18 GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE/APPLICATION CHART 71
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STACK GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLARE GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY GAS FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNG FLOW METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE METERING, BY METER TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DP GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PD GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TURBINE GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL MASS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MFCS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANNUBAR GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CORIOLIS GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DOPPLER VORTEX GAS FLOW METERING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 35 NANO-GAS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES 94
TABLE 36 GAS FLOW SENSORS/MONITORS SUPPLIER LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 98
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STACK GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLARE GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNG SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE SENSOR/MONITORING, BY SENSOR TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IR SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID-STATE SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CATALYTIC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PARAMAGNETIC SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
TABLE 51 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CHEMILUMESCENCE SENSORS/MONITORING BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRA-VIOLET SENSOR/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 53 OVERVIEW OF TEMPERATURE SENSORS 115
TABLE 54 OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE SENSORS 117
TABLE 55 SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION SUPPLIER/VENDOR 118
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN CUSTODY TRANSFER OF NATURAL GAS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION FOR STACK GAS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN FLARE METERING, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN UTILITY APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 61 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN CNG APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED IN LOW GAS FLOW RATE APPLICATIONS, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 64 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TEMPERATURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRESSURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DENSITY SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY REGION AND APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 68 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF FLOW METERS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 131
TABLE 69 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF GAS SENSORS/MONITORS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 132



LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 17
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 18
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION MARKET, BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%) 19
FIGURE 4 TYPICAL SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR AN ONSTREAM ANALYZER 24
FIGURE 5 VENTURI FLOW METER 49
FIGURE 6 ELBOW FLOW METER 50
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 (%) 69
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 76
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 99
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 107
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2015-2021 (%) 119
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING INSTRUMENTATION, BY INSTRUMENTATION TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 124
FIGURE 13 U.S. GAS SENSOR/MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY PRODUCT TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 157
FIGURE 14 U.S. GAS SENSOR FLOW METER PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 158
FIGURE 15 U.S. GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 159
FIGURE 16 U.S. SECONDARY GAS INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY PARAMETER MEASURED (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 160
Country=World Industry=NaturalGas ParentIndustry=OilAndGas Date=201701 Topic=MarketReport Publisher=BCCResearch Price=5000