Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts: The U.S. Market

Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts: The U.S. Market

Catalysts for chemical, petrochemical, and petroleum refining processes constitute a significant business in the United States. BCC estimates total merchant sales of these products in the U.S. in 2010 at about $4.1 billion. The total U.S. market value is forecast to increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 2.5% to reach more than $4.6 billion by 2015.

For all types of chemical catalysts, we estimate a total 2010 market of almost $2.7 billion, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 2.5% to more than $3 billion in 2015. Polymerization is the largest chemical catalyst segment with a market of about $1.3 billion and a slightly higher CAGR.

Petroleum refining catalysts are a smaller market at $1.4 billion in sales in 2010, but also are predicted to grow at about a 2.5% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to more than $1.6 billion in 2015. Growth will be spurred by increasing demand for reformulated and other less-polluting gasolines, plus new regulations calling for drastic reductions in sulfur content in gasoline and diesel fuel.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Catalysts and the products made with them are all around us, even though most people know neither what a catalyst is nor what they do. Some experts claim that catalysts are involved somewhere along the chain in the manufacture of products that represent about one-third of the entire U.S. material Gross National Product (GDP). Considering that a high percentage of chemical and refined petroleum products are made via catalytic reactions (some experts put the percentage at 90% or higher for chemicals), this percentage seems logical.

Some studies have estimated that catalysts are responsible for the manufacture of around $4 trillion in goods and services worldwide annually and that the total global catalyst business is well more than $10 billion. Indeed, some studies estimate the worldwide market at more than $15 billion. Estimates vary, of course, depending on what is included; for example, if environmental correction catalysts and enzyme biocatalysts are included, the total will of course be larger. No matter what the number, this is a large multibillion market.

Virtually every polymer, whether it is a synthetic fiber, a plastic resin, or an elastomer, is made with a catalytic process. Other chemicals, from pharmaceuticals to pesticides, are produced catalytically. In petroleum refining, catalytic processes allow refiners to produce the broad mix of fuels and other products that drive today’s economy.

There is also an entire body of catalysis, outside the scope of this report, in environmental correction; the most obvious examples are catalytic converters on automobiles that clean up auto exhausts. Even our bodies are operated by catalysts, the biological catalysts called enzymes, the important area of biocatalysis that is outside our scope as well.

Catalysts have been used commercially for more than a century, dating from the Deacon and contact processes, first used in the late 1800s. Fritz Haber’s ammonia synthesis of 1908 (which is still used in much the same form today) can be considered the process that heralded the birth of modern industrial catalysis. The industry has grown to the point where some catalyst markets are considered mature, and most continue to grow at moderate rates, often paralleling the national GDP, in keeping with chemical and refining process technology and business in general. However, as has always been the case in innovative industries, some, such as the single-site/metallocene polymerization catalysts, have become a major growth area.

Our goal in this report is to describe the compounds, products, and markets for catalysts that we describe as “petrochemicals.” That is, catalysts which are used in petroleum refining; in petrochemical processes in which the feedstocks come from crude oil or natural gas; and in chemical reactions/processes in which the feedstock materials may come from other sources. This is big business; the petrochemical industry in the U.S., driven by production of synthetic polymers, is one of the nation’s largest.

Catalysis is highly technical, and its products and markets are large and diverse. The industries and applications that we cover are discussed below in the subsection “Scope.”

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Catalysts are important materials of commerce, even if most people do not realize how catalysts touch them every day. Most of us drive cars fueled with high-octane unleaded, often oxygenated or reformulated, gasoline, which is blended with components produced in catalytic oil refinery processes. Although the current major motor fuel oxygenate, ethanol, is primarily produced in the United States via fermentation from corn, this is an exception to the basic rule that most major chemical products are made via catalytic processes. Bioprocessing of industrial chemicals from biomass sources is a growing and important technology, but at present is more at the research and development stage than at the stage of commercial method of making large-scale industrial compounds for sale.

We use plastic products everywhere, in everything from automobile interiors to much of our packaging. In addition, the pharmaceutical products we use have most likely been made with at least one catalytic reaction. Most of the food we eat has been grown on land fertilized with an ammonia-based fertilizer; until the catalytic Haber ammonia process was developed, there was no way to “fix” nitrogen from the air to make it available for incorporation into chemical products.

Some other applications of catalysts and catalytic reactions are not as well known to the average person, but are no less important, since they affect the manufacture of a vast number of chemical and other products in other important commercial and consumer businesses and markets.

This report is the latest update in a series of BCC Research reports on this subject, the most recent ones by the same author. BCC Research continues to do this study to provide a comprehensive reference for those interested and/or involved in these products; this covers a wide and varied group of petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, and other companies that make and supply catalysts, chemicals, process technology, and equipment. Other interested parties will be designers and marketers, politicians of all stripes, and the general public. We have sorted through and condensed information from a large amount of literature and other reference materials to compile this report.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to assist those involved in several different segments of the U.S. industrial and commercial business sectors. These organizations and people include those who are involved in the development, formulation, manufacture, sale, and use of catalysts, catalytic processes, and ancillary businesses such as catalyst supports, additives, and regeneration. This audience includes process and product development experts, process and product designers, purchasing agents, construction and operating personnel, marketing staff, and top management. BCC Research feels that this report will be of great value to technical and business personnel in the following areas, among others:

Marketing and management personnel in companies that produce, market, and sell petrochemical (i.e., chemical and petroleum refining) catalysts
Companies involved in the design and construction of process plants that use catalysts
Financial institutions that supply money for these facilities
Personnel in end-user companies and industries, such as chemical processing, packaging, and consumer and household products
Personnel in government at many levels, primarily at the federal level, but also state and local environmental and other regulators who must implement and enforce the laws regarding water and air quality, etc.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This study covers many of the most important technological, economic, political, and environmental considerations in the U.S. catalyst industry. It is primarily a study of U.S. markets, but because of the global nature of chemistry, it touches on some noteworthy international activities; these are primarily those that can have an impact on the U.S. market, such as imports/exports and, increasingly, foreign firms that operate there.

All market value estimates and forecasts are given in constant 2010 dollars, and growth rates are all compounded, presented as compounded annual growth rates or CAGRs. Market values are all rounded to the nearest million dollars. Because of rounding to the nearest million, some growth rates may not agree exactly with figures in the market tables, especially for small values.

This report is segmented into nine chapters, of which this is the first, and an appendix including a glossary of some important terms, abbreviations, acronyms, etc.
SCOPE OF REPORT (Continued)
The Summary encapsulates our findings and conclusions and includes a summary major market table of estimates ad forecasts. It is the place where the busy executive can find the major findings of the study in summary format.

We follow with an Overview of catalysis and catalysts with some history of the principal types of catalysts and catalytic reactions, and processes and materials used to produce catalysts. Its intent is to introduce the reader to the field of chemical catalysis.

The next chapter discusses and forecasts markets for catalysts used in chemical processes; that is, processes that usually do not take place in a petroleum refinery. We subdivide the market into catalysts for six large classes of catalytic chemical reactions: hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, organic synthesis, oxidation, polymerization, and synthesis gas/syngas processes. Our market analysis and forecast is for base year 2010 and forecast year 2015, all in constant 2010 dollars.

Next we discuss and forecast the markets for catalysts used in petroleum refining. Processes analyzed and forecasted include the six basic classes of catalytic refining processes: alkylation, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, hydrotreating/ desulfurization, isomerization, and catalytic reforming. In addition, we cover gas processing, usually devoted to sulfur removal.

The next chapter is devoted to catalyst technologies, with emphasis on both established and new catalyst technologies. These continue to be exciting times in catalysts, for example, with continuing development of more homogeneous catalysts, development and fine-tuning of single-site catalysts for polymerization of major plastics, chiral catalysts for fine chemical syntheses, and others.

The next chapter covers some important facets of government regulation and public policy. Catalysts are not as regulated as many other industries are, since they are not supposed to be in final products, but political forces have driven the petroleum refining industry for years and continue to do so until this day, with greater emphasis on cleaner burning fuels. For this reason our prime discussion is on governmental regulations regarding refined motor fuels, both gasoline and diesel.

The next chapter covers the structure and activities of the catalyst industry, with emphasis on the major domestic producers and suppliers, customer service, and the growing trend in supplier-user alliances. We briefly discuss some international aspects of the catalyst business, including the global nature of the business, major foreign-owned supplier companies that operate in the United States, and imports and exports.
SCOPE OF REPORT (Continued)
Our last narrative chapter consists of profiles of those supplier companies that BCC Research considers to be among the most important in these businesses. There are many more companies that operate in one or more niche markets, but in our opinion they are not important enough to be considered major producers and suppliers.

We end with an appendix, a glossary of some important terms, abbreviations, acronyms, etc. used in the chemical, petroleum, and catalyst industries.

The scope of this study is restricted to catalysts used in the chemical process industry (CPI) in process operations. We define the CPI broadly to include petroleum refining (an industry sometimes called the hydrocarbon processing industry or HPI). By confining our study to process catalysts, we do not cover a major market, one that has many studies on its own, of environmental catalysts, primarily for air pollution control. Because such environmental catalysts are chemical catalysts, we do introduce them and their applications in the Overview chapter; however, we do not make market estimates or forecasts for environmental catalysts since they are outside the scope of this study.

Since this study focuses on chemical catalysts, we also exclude from our market analyses biocatalysts (such as enzymes), electrocatalysts, photocatalysts (catalysts that allow light or other waves in the electromagnetic spectrum to influence reactions and processes), and other exotic ideas such as sonocatalysts (high-frequency ultrasound waves that generate heat and pressure). These are all exciting fields of study, but are outside the scope of this report. We do introduce some of these ideas in the Technology chapter.

Thus, please note that there are some new and exciting areas of catalysis, discussed in the Overview and/or Technology chapters, which are either (1) outside the scope of this study (e.g., environmental catalysts) or (2) new, cutting-edge technologies like photocatalysts, which are too new and small to attempt to analyze and forecast. The products and markets that we analyze and for which we estimate and forecast sales are those in the chapters on commercial catalysts for chemical and refinery processes.

For consistency in style and format, trade names are indicated by initial upper case letters, while generic names are all in lower case. Because many chemical names are long and complicated, we often use abbreviations, acronyms, or chemical formulae. Many of these acronyms, such as HDPE (high-density polyethylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) for common polymers, are in capital letters.

Chemical elements and compounds can all be designated by chemical symbols and formulae; after introducing the element or compound we often use such symbols, such as Ni for nickel and HF for hydrofluoric acid. Our glossary at the end contains definitions and explanations for many of the most important abbreviations and acronyms. We do assume that most readers have had at least an initial introduction to chemistry and understand the principles of chemical nomenclature.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Searches were made of the literature and the Internet, including many of the leading trade publications, as well as technical compendia and government publications. Much product and market information was obtained whenever possible from the companies involved. The information for our corporate profiles was obtained primarily from the companies, especially the larger publicly owned firms. Other sources included directories, articles, and Internet sites.
Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
SCOPE OF REPORT (CONTINUED) 4
SCOPE OF REPORT (CONTINUED) 5
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 6
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC WORK CREDENTIALS 6
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 7
DISCLAIMER 7

Chapter-2: SUMMARY

SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYST MARKETS BY PROCESS THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYST MARKETS BY PROCESS 2010 AND 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 10

Chapter-3: OVERVIEW

CATALYSIS AND CATALYSTS: HISTORY AND BACKGROUND 11
DEFINITION 11
HISTORY 12
PROCESSES 13
Catalyst Makeup 14
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS 14
Reaction Parameters 15
Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis 15
HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSTS 16
Advantages 17
Molecular Catalysts 17
Commercial Applications 18
Multiphase Homogeneous Catalysis 19
Phase-Transfer Catalysis 20
Phase-Transfer … (Continued) 21
ACID AND BASE CATALYSIS AND CATALYSTS 22
Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts 22
Homogeneous Acid/Base Catalysts 23
FREE RADICAL CATALYSTS 24
THE PERIODIC TABLE AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS 24
Transition Group Metals 25
TABLE 1 TRANSITION METALS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE 26
TABLE 2 CHEMICAL SYMBOLS FOR COMMON CATALYTIC ELEMENTS 26
CHEMICAL PROCESSING 27
Importance of the U.S. Chemical Industry 27
Types of Catalytic Chemical Reactions 28
PETROLEUM REFINING 29
Historical Background 30
Petroleum Refining Processes 31
Petroleum … (Continued) 32
Industry Structure 33
Market Leaders 34
The Refining Margin 34
Refining Capacity 35
Importance to the U.S. and World Economies 35
Importance to … (Continued) 36
Major Petroleum Products and Applications 37
Petroleum Refinery Streams and Products 38
Petroleum … (Continued) 39
Types of Petroleum Refineries 40
Types of … (Continued) 41
Refinery Catalytic Processes and Catalysts 42
OTHER APPLICATIONS FOR CATALYSTS 42
Automotive Emission Controls 42
Automotive … (Continued) 43
Stationary Source Emissions Control 44
Other Environmental Catalysis 45
MATERIALS USED TO PRODUCE CATALYSTS 45
BASE METALS AND COMPOUNDS 45
Aluminum (Al) 45
Aluminum Alkyls 46
Bismuth (Bi) 47
Chromium (Cr) 47
Cobalt (Co) 48
Copper (Cu) 48
Hafnium (Hf) 49
Iron (Fe) 49
Lithium (Li) 50
Magnesium (Mg) 51
Manganese (Mn) 51
Mercury (Hg) 51
Molybdenum (Mo) 52
Nickel (Ni) 52
Raney Nickel 53
Phosphorus (P) 54
Potassium (K) 54
Rhenium (Re) 55
Tin (Sn) 55
Titanium (Ti) 55
Tungsten (W) 56
Vanadium (V) 57
Zinc (Zn) 57
Zirconium (Zr) 57
NOBLE (PRECIOUS) METALS 58
Gold (Au) 58
Iridium (Ir) 59
Palladium (Pd) 59
TABLE 3 AVERAGE PRICES FOR NOBLE METALS, 1995-LATE 2010 ($ PER TROY OUNCE) 60
Platinum (Pt) 61
Rhodium (Rh) 62
Ruthenium (Ru) 63
Silver (Ag) 63
ALUMINOSILICATES 63
Zeolites 64
Natural Zeolites 65
Synthetic Zeolites 65
Synthetic Zeolites (Continued) 66
ExxonMobil's ZSM-5 Zeolites 66
TABLE 4 SOME CATALYTIC APPLICATIONS OF ZSM-5 ZEOLITES 67
Molecular Sieves 68
ORGANIC PEROXIDES 69
TABLE 5 TYPICAL TYPES OF ORGANIC PEROXIDES 69
OTHER NONMETALLIC CATALYSTS, CARRIERS, AND SUPPORTS 70
Powdered Supports 71
Particulate Supports 72
Alumina 72
Activated Carbon 73
Clays 74
Synthetic Ion Exchange Resins 74
Other Catalyst Supports 75
Calcium Carbonate 75
Barium Sulfate 75
Kieselguhr 76
Magnesium Compounds 76
Silica 76

Chapter-4: CHEMICAL PROCESS CATALYSTS: APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS

SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 77
TABLE 6 ESTIMATES OF U.S. CHEMICAL CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 78
SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND … (CONTINUED) 79
HYDROGENATION 80
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 80
TABLE 7 ESTIMATES OF U.S. HYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 8 ESTIMATES OF U.S. HYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 81
FATS AND OILS 82
Fats and Oils (Continued) 83
Fats and Oils (Continued) 84
CYCLOHEXANE FROM BENZENE 85
BY-PRODUCT HYDROGENATION IN ETHYLENE PLANTS 85
AMINES FROM NITRO COMPOUNDS 85
PHARMACEUTICAL AND FINE CHEMICAL HYDROGENATIONS 86
DEHYDROGENATION 86
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 87
TABLE 9 ESTIMATES OF U.S. DEHYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKETS BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 87
COMMERCIAL DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS 87
STYRENE SYNTHESIS 88
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS 89
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 90
TABLE 10 ESTIMATES OF U.S. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 11 ESTIMATES OF U.S. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 90
ALKYLATION 91
Ethylbenzene 91
Cumene 92
Linear Alkylbenzene 93
AMINATION 94
AROMATIZATION 94
BUTANEDIOL FROM MALEIC ANHYDRIDE 94
CONDENSATION REACTIONS 95
DISPROPORTIONATION AND METATHESIS 95
Disproportionation and Metathesis (Continued) 96
ESTERIFICATION 97
FUEL OXYGENATE ETHERS 97
Energy Policy Act of 2005 98
Technology 99
In-Refinery Ether Production 99
Grassroots MTBE Plants 100
MTBE from Tertiary Butyl Alcohol 101
HYDRODEALKYLATION 101
ISOMERIZATION 102
NITRATION 102
OLEFINS PRODUCTION 103
Propylene Production 104
Propylene … (Continued) 105
OXIDATION 106
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 107
TABLE 12 ESTIMATES OF U.S. OXIDATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 13 ESTIMATES OF U.S. OXIDATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 108
ACRYLIC ACID 109
ACRYLONITRILE 109
ADIPIC ACID 110
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE 111
FORMALDEHYDE 112
OLEFIN EPOXIDATION: ETHYLENE AND PROPYLENE OXIDE 113
NITRIC ACID 114
SULFURIC ACID 115
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE 115
PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 116
TEREPHTHALIC ACID 116
OTHER OXIDATION REACTIONS 117
POLYMERIZATION 118
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 119
TABLE 14 ESTIMATES OF U.S. POLYMERIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 15 ESTIMATES OF U.S. POLYMERIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 16 U.S. PLASTICS PRODUCTION, 2006-2009 (BILLION LBS) 121
POLYOLEFIN HISTORY 122
Polymethylene 122
Polyethylene 122
Polyethylene (Continued) 123
Polypropylene 124
Higher Alpha-Olefin Polymers 124
Polyolefin Steric Regularity 124
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION PROCESSES FOR ADDITION POLYMERS 125
Polyethylene: High-Pressure Processes 125
Polyethylene: Low-Pressure Processes 126
Polyethylene: Gas-Phase Processes 127
Polyethylene: … (Continued) 128
Polypropylene 129
Polystyrene 130
Polyvinyl Chloride 131
Other Addition Polymers 131
ORGANIC PEROXIDE POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS 132
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEX POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS 133
Ziegler-Natta Catalysts 133
Single-Site/Metallocene Catalysts 134
CONDENSATION POLYMERS AND CATALYSTS 135
THERMOSETTING POLYMERS 136
Epoxy Resins 137
Phenolic Resins 137
Unsaturated Polyester Resins 137
Polyurethane Resins 138
Urea- and Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins 138
Other Thermosets 138
SYNTHESIS GAS AND SYNGAS PROCESSES 139
SYNTHESIS GAS AND SYNGAS PROCESSES (CONTINUED) 140
“THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY” 141
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 142
TABLE 17 ESTIMATE OF U.S. SYNTHESIS GAS PROCESS CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 18 ESTIMATE OF U.S. SYNTHESIS GAS PROCESS CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 143
STEAM REFORMING 144
Steam Reforming (Continued) 145
AMMONIA SYNTHESIS 146
Ammonia Synthesis (Continued) 147
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 148
Fischer-Tropsch Process (Continued) 149
Fischer-Tropsch Process (Continued) 150
COAL GASIFICATION, INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE (IGCC) TECHNOLOGY 151
Coal Gasification, Integrated…(Continued) 152
GTL: NATURAL GAS TO FUELS/CHEMICALS: MODIFIED FISCHER-TROPSCH 153
Market Players 154
Market Outlook 155
THE NATURAL GAS REFINERY 156
HYDROFORMYLATION (OXO) PROCESS 157
METHANOL SYNTHESIS 158
Methanol Synthesis (Continued) 159

Chapter-5: PETROLEUM REFINING CATALYSTS: APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS

PETROLEUM REFINING CATALYSTS: 160
TRENDS IN PETROLEUM REFINING 161
MOTOR GASOLINE 162
TABLE 19 SOME U.S. MOTOR GASOLINE SPECIFICATION CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS 163
DIESEL FUEL 163
TABLE 20 SOME U.S. DIESEL FUEL SPECIFICATION CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS 164
HEATING OIL 164
CHEMICAL PROCESSES 164
CAPACITY 165
OTHER TRENDS 165
SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 166
TABLE 21 ESTIMATE OF U.S. REFINERY CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 167
ALKYLATION 167
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 168
TABLE 22 ESTIMATE OF U.S. REFINERY ALKYLATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 168
Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued) 169
Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued) 170
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE-CATALYZED ALKYLATION 171
SULFURIC ACID-CATALYZED ALKYLATION 172
SOLID ACID ALKYLATION CATALYST TECHNOLOGY 173
OLIGOMERIZATION 173
FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING 174
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 174
TABLE 23 ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 175
FIGURE 1   ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, 2010 AND 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 24 ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 176
Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued) 177
TOWER BOTTOMS (RESID) CRACKING 178
FCC CATALYST REGENERATION 179
HYDROCRACKING 179
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 180
TABLE 25 ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROCRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 180
TABLE 26 ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROCRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 180
LUBE OIL DEWAXING 181
HYDROTREATING/HYDRODESULFURIZATION 182
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 182
TABLE 27 ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROTREATING/HYDRODESULFURIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 183
Background 183
Technology 184
ISOMERIZATION 185
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 186
CATALYTIC REFORMING 187
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 188
TABLE 28 ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYTIC REFORMING CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 188
TABLE 29 ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYTIC REFORMING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 189
REFORMER OPERATION TO PRODUCE RFG BLENDSTOCKS 189
GAS PROCESSING 190
GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 191
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 192

Chapter-6: TECHNOLOGY

CATALYST PROPERTIES 193
ACTIVITY 193
REGENERABILITY 193
SELECTIVITY 194
STABILITY 195
CATALYST RECOVERY 195
RECOVERY VS. REGENERATION 196
NOBLE METAL CATALYSTS 196
BASE METAL CATALYSTS 197
NEW REACTION SCHEMES, PROCESSES, AND FEEDSTOCKS 198
NEW REACTION SCHEMES, … (CONTINUED) 199
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES 200
NEW CATALYST TECHNOLOGY 201
BASIC QUESTIONS OF CATALYST STRUCTURE 201
BASIC QUESTIONS OF … (CONTINUED) 202
Characterization of Catalyst Structure 203
Surface Chemistry 203
PROCESSES THAT NEED NEW CATALYSTS 204
Processes That Need … (Continued) 205
CATALYST DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 206
Catalyst Design and … (Continued) 207
Bench or Micro Scale Testing 208
Laboratory Experiments 208
Pilot Plant Scale Testing 209
The Commercial Production Unit 210
Post-Start-up Changes and Improvements 210
NEW HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST MATERIALS AND SUPPORTS 211
Bimetallic Cluster Catalysts 211
Designed Pore Structures 212
Nanoscale Catalysts (“Nanocatalysts”) 212
Nanoscale Catalysts … (Continued) 213
Nanotube Composites 214
Promoters 214
Solid Acid Catalysts 215
Microencapsulation 216
Nanostructured Solid Acid Catalysts 216
New Zeolites 216
Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts 217
HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSTS 218
Homogeneous Chiral Catalysts 219
Use of Supercritical Fluids as Solvents 220
Use of Supercritical … (Continued) 221
Supported Homogeneous Catalysts 222
SINGLE-SITE POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS 223
Characterization of Single-Site Catalysts 224
Single-Site Catalyzed Polymers 225
TABLE 30 COMMERCIAL SINGLE-SITE POLYMERS AND COMMON APPLICATIONS 226
Homogeneous Metallocene Catalysts 227
Commercial and Semi-Commercial Single-Site Polymers 227
Multicomponent Catalysts: Single-Site Catalysts with Others 228
Single-Site Co-Catalysts: Aluminoxanes 228
OTHER NEW CHEMICAL CATALYSTS 229
REFINERY CATALYSTS 229
Lighter Products 229
Lower Aromatic Content 229
Lower Light Olefin Content 230
OTHER CATALYST TECHNOLOGIES 230
Biocatalysis 230
Plant-Derived Feedstocks and Processes 231
Organocatalysis 232
Photocatalysis 233
Combinatorial Chemistry in Catalytic Research 233
Computational Methods in Catalyst Design 234
Use of Oxygen in Oxidation Reactions 235
Advances in Hydrogenation 235
Advances in Hydrogenation (Continued) 236
Copolymerizing Polar and Nonpolar Monomers 237
Cooperative Catalysis 237

Chapter-7: GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES/REGULATION AND PUBLIC POLICY

GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES AND REGULATION 238
CONTROLS ON THE CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES 238
CONTROLS THAT DIRECTLY AFFECT CATALYSTS AND THEIR MARKETS 239
Controls that Directly (Continued) 240
PETROLEUM REFINING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 241
The Lead Phase-out of 1975 241
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 241
The Clean Air … (Continued) 242
Reformulated/Oxygenated Gasolines 243
MBTE Use and Phase-out 244
MBTE Use and … (Continued) 245
Reid Vapor Pressure 246
Motor Gasoline Olefins Content 247
Changes in Feedstocks and Product Mix 248
Tier II Sulfur and Other New Rules 249
Diesel Fuel 249
Diesel Fuel (Continued) 250
Motor Gasoline 251
PUBLIC POLICY AND ATTITUDES 251
PUBLIC POLICY AND ATTITUDES (CONTINUED) 252

Chapter-8: CATALYST INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES

COMPANIES THAT MAKE AND SUPPLY CATALYSTS 253
INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AND SUPPLIER DOMINANCE 254
CUSTOMER AND TECHNICAL SERVICE 255
CATALYST SUPPLIER-USER ALLIANCES 256
CATALYST DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING 257
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS 257
THE GLOBAL CATALYST BUSINESS 258
Growth in Different Parts of the World 258
Growth in Different … (Continued) 259
MAJOR FOREIGN PLAYERS 260
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 261
TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL CATALYST INDUSTRY 261
Trends in the Global … (Continued) 262

Chapter-9: SUPPLIER COMPANY PROFILES

INTRODUCTION 263
SUPPLIER COMPANIES 264
AIR PRODUCTS & CHEMICALS, INC. 264
ACCELRYS, INC./SYMYX TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 265
Symyx 265
ALBEMARLE CORP. 266
ARKEMA, INC. 267
AVANTIUM TECHNOLOGIES B.V. 268
AXENS NORTH AMERICA, INC. 268
BADGER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 269
BASF CORP. 270
BASF Corp., Catalysts Division 270
BAYER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES 271
CARUS CORP. 272
CATALYTIC DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGIES (CDTECH) 272
Catalytic Distillation … (Continued) 273
CB&I 274
Lummus Technology 274
CHEVRON CORP./CHEVRON LUMMUS GLOBAL/ADVANCED REFINING, TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 275
Chevron Corp./…(Continued) 276
CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO., LLC 277
CONOCOPHILLIPS CO. 277
Conocophillips Co. (Continued) 278
CRI/CRITERION, INC. 279
THE DOW CHEMICAL CO. 280
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS & CO. 281
EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO. 282
EURECAT U.S., INC. 283
EVONIK DEGUSSA CORP. 283
EXXON MOBIL CHEMICAL CO. 284
FMC CORP. 285
GE ENERGY 286
W.R. GRACE & CO./GRACE DAVISON DIVISION 287
HALDOR TOPSOE, INC. 288
HEADWATERS, INC. 289
INEOS TECHNOLOGIES 290
INTERCAT, INC. 291
JOHNSON MATTHEY, INC. 292
Johnson Matthey Catalysts 292
KBR, INC. 293
KBR, Inc. (Continued) 294
KING INDUSTRIES, INC. 295
LYONDELL BASELL INDUSTRIES N.V. 295
MATERIA, INC. 296
NOVA CHEMICALS CORP. 297
OM GROUP, INC. 298
PQ CORP. 299
REAXA, LTD. 300
RENTECH, INC. 301
Rentech, Inc. (Continued) 302
SAINT-GOBAIN NORPRO CORP. 303
SCIENTIFIC DESIGN CO., INC. 304
THE SHEPHERD CHEMICAL CO. 305
SIGMA-ALDRICH CO. 305
SÜD CHEMIE, INC. 306
Süd Chemie, Inc. (Continued) 307
SYNTROLEUM CORP. 308
UOP, LLC 309
UOP, LLC (Continued) 310
WAKO CHEMICALS USA, INC. 311
ZEOCHEM, LLC 311
ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL 312

Chapter-10: APPENDIX

APPENDIX 313
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, ETC. 313
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS…(CONTINUED) 314
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS…(CONTINUED) 315