Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Technologies and Global Markets
- January 2017
- 392 pages
- BCC Research
Use this report to:
- Identify present and emerging technologies, suppliers, and market strategies in the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) industry.
- Quantify the range of BIPV markets for various types of roofing, building facades, glazing, sunshading, skylighting and architectural fabrics that incorporate a solar-power production medium.
- Analyze the development and opportunities for BIPV products and their potential building component manufacturing partners.
- Gain insight into the national and international approaches that subsidize the continued expansion of the PV industry.
- The global market for building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technologies will grow from $2.4 billion in 2016 to $4.3 billion by 2021 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.2% for the period of 2016-2021.
- The standing seam metal roofing market is the largest segment and will grow from $676.8 million in 2016 to $972.5 million by 2021, with a CAGR of 7.5%.
- The facades market is expected to increase from $690.5 million in 2016 to $754.2 million by 2021, with a CAGR of 1.8%.
The world today relies heavily on fossil fuels (e.g., oil, coal and natural gas) as energy sources. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they are sourced from finite resources that will eventually be consumed until limited supplies remain, ultimately becoming too expensive or environmentally damaging to extract. In contrast, multiple forms of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal, are regularly replenished and will never be exhausted.
The sun provides the majority of renewable energy, in both direct and indirect forms. Sunlight, or more accurately referred to as solar energy, can be directly used for lighting buildings, generating electricity, air and water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses.
Since the world will ultimately deplete its current finite sources of energy or deplete them to the point where economic viability to recover the finite energy sources no longer exists, it remains important to seek renewable energy options and develop and perfect the respective technologies before issues arise yet again in the future.
Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are defined in this report as photovoltaic materials that replace conventional building materials in components of the building envelope, such as the roof, skylights or facades. They serve as a class of solar products in which the PV component both converts light to electricity and also replace a building component. Major building envelope components include: cladding (i.e., the “weather skin”), skylights, roof tiles, curtain walls, windows, asphalt roofing, and louvers, among others.
Progress is being made in the proliferation and integration of photovoltaics (PVs) into building external components. This market segment remains a vast arena largely untapped as a source of solar electricity. Gigawatt-scale solar power plants are being built in the desert areas of the world. Such installations will always face 11%-plus power losses along the transmission lines that deliver the energy to consumers. On buildings, the power losses are kept to a minimum, and are mostly involved in converting the DC current, the cells produce to the AC used in a building.
BIPV combined-function components have gained a sustaining minor expanding growing niche in the 30 gigawatt - (GW) plus annual world market for photovoltaics. BIPV has essentially limitless market potential because the world’s buildings account for more than 40% of all energy consumption, with lighting accounting for 35% of that demand. Moreover, all power generated can usually be consumed on-site. This BCC Research report examines the global BIPV industry and trends in the evolution of the various BIPV market application segments. These markets are characterized in terms of present and future (through 2021) generating capacity and dollar value of PV systems shipped for BIPV applications. This study focuses on the rates of expansion of sales of BIPV capacity in the various building niches, examines whether the continuing erosion of price for PV capacity mitigates higher capacity prices for BIPV products, and assesses the impacts of global locations on the economics of BIPV.
The expansion of BIPV markets is expected to continue because of the following ongoing factors:
- Energy usually consumed on-site.
- Little transmission loss.
- No additional land requirement.
- Use of an existing structure to get the PV material off the ground.
- Architectural design element.
- “Green” is built into the building.
- Modern, ecological statement by the building.
- Reduction in need for other building materials.
- PV material is protected, no fences needed.
These underlying facets that encourage markets for BIPV to exist and expand have opened several doors that spark imaginative new configurations of PV applications, including micro-perforated c-Si skylights that admit light (e.g., Onyx Solar), power-generating street furniture (e.g., Carmanah, Spotlight Solar) and colored window walls that emulate modern art such as the grid-based paintings of Piet Mondrian. Thorough discussions are presented to improve the understanding of why BIPV markets are changing as they are, and how the shifts in manufacturing capacity and ownership concentrations of the various PV technologies and production capacity will impact the proliferation of BIPV equipment, if that can be expected for any particular building component niche.
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The primary objective of this BCC Research report is to characterize and quantify significant global BIPV markets; the legislative, regulatory, political and economic forces driving those markets; identify present and emerging technologies, suppliers, and market strategies; and quantify the markets for BIPV technologies on global and regional levels.
This report furnishes a global guidebook for near - to mid-term development and opportunities for BIPV products and, by default, their potential building component manufacturing partners in those very financially substantial construction industry niches. The study was performed to locate, characterize, and quantify the range of BIPV markets for various types of roofing, building facades, glazing, sunshading, skylighting and architectural fabrics that incorporate a solar-power production medium. Not all PV products are suitable for every BIPV application. This report identifies and substantiates the reasoning for uses of particular PV technologies in specific BIPV market segments. The investigation covers crystalline (c-Si) and poly - and multi-crystalline silicon (mc-si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), CIGS, organic dye-sensitized titanium oxide PV materials (dye solar cell: “DSSC”) and plastic (or organic) solar cells (OPV).
However, even innocuous power-generation technologies such as PV are not installed in a vacuum. This report provides insights into the national and international approaches that subsidize the continued expansion of the PV industry, as well as the legal and regulatory regimes that define requirements for the physical behavior and appearance of BIPV products, and shows how BIPV products must satisfy building component-related regulatory specifications in the various markets in which they will function.
Finally, the report assesses the extent to which strategic partnerships with building component manufacturers, contractors, developers and architectural firms underpin the ability of PV manufacturers to enter into the trillion-dollar building construction market. The report also analyzes the economics of such entry, as well as the impacts of the deep economic recession that has affected much of the world while 75% of global PV production now takes place in China and Taiwan.
The PV industry, however, is truly high-technology. The new wave of third-generation PV products will have capabilities that allow them to be used in ways previously not possible. This report shows that thin-film products will have several BIPV market segments to themselves and, as premium products, will also take some market share from c-Si and mc-Si. Light weight, flexibility, adequate operational efficiency and color options are proving to be strong new capabilities that will find markets when the product is right and there is enough of it.
RATIONALE FOR CONDUCTING THIS STUDY
The photovoltaics industry is making the transition from an expensive renewable technology to becoming a major factor in the world’s energy supply. Annual market value of installed product is now measured in the tens of billions of dollars (U.S.) , and the trend remains upward, despite an uneven global economy. Costs have been significantly reduced. Some companies have grown large enough to deliver multiple gigawatts of PV per year, but remained focused on the utility-scale market.
There remains a broad-based business in adding PV capacity to residential, commercial and institutional buildings. This latter, building-related application of PV technology, that is, “behind the meter,” is the highest-value application for PV, at least for grid-connected applications. Power is always produced at the peak of the day when prices are highest and delivery of power from distant sources would otherwise be needed.
BIPV could be anticipated to have a natural economic edge. Instead of building all external components of a building, and then adding PV capacity, the inclusion of generating capacity as part of building components would inevitably make the combination of the two lower-cost than the two added individually. However, this has not occurred yet, for various reasons, with the primary cause being the downturn in global building construction activity. Just as many new products are ready for entry into the substantially sized BIPV market niches, the construction market contracted mightily.
This has proven to be a temporary phenomenon. It occurred with greater severity in the developed world, and in 2010, a slow turnaround began in the U.S. and some EU countries, plus Latin America and Southeast Asia. China and India, on the other hand, have started on a course of building construction that will surpass all that has come before. It is an overdue manifestation of decades of redistribution of wealth, combined with a gnawing need for new energy infrastructure in regions where sufficient infrastructure has long been absent. Still, the global economies, particularly in the U.S. and Europe, are so large that even in the deepest part of the economic pullback, construction and renovation projects remained at levels that are the envy of most of the world.
All of this activity, whether publicly or privately funded, generates opportunities for new PV capacity to enter the market on a mass scale as part of the construction, rather than the energy, market.
The report is intended particularly for manufacturers and distributors of PV technologies used in BIPV products, as well as the manufacturers and distributors of the products themselves. Although the report is structured around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature, concerned less with theory and jargon than with what works, product volumes the market is likely to purchase, and at what price.
This report’s primary audience consists of executive management, marketing and financial analysts, engineering firms, architects, building owners, energy service providers, entrepreneurs, individual investors and investment groups, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to understand where the market for BIPV is headed over the next five years.
Other audiences who should find the report informative include:
- Manufacturers l of all photovoltaic systems, including rigid and flexible modules, cells, encapsulants, crystalline and polycrystalline materials, and thin-films.
- Members of PV or BIPV technology-specific trade, professional and advocacy organizations.
- Officials of government agencies and multinational organizations responsible for optimizing PV efficiency and promoting the use of renewable energy technologies.
- Governmental and non-profit organizations/agencies focusing on energy initiatives.
- Environmental and public policy interest groups with an interest in sustainable development, the environment, energy, and worker health.
- Energy research and policy communities.
- Market research groups.
- Academic institutions.
Furthermore, this BCC Research report is of interest to PV production planning and marketing executives, balance of system component manufacturers and vendors, product planners and engineers, architectural firms, behind-the-meter project developers, financiers and investors, regulatory policy developers and enforcers, building component manufacturers, marketers and installers, balance of systems component suppliers, electrical and construction trade unions, educational institutions, real estate developers and owners, legislators, market analysts, utilities and construction industry professional associations. There is also material of interest to manufacturers of glass, membrane, tile and standing seam metal roofing materials, sunshade louvers, architectural fabrics, window frames, marble and metal building cladding, and roofing shingle and tile manufacturers.
The study employed both primary and secondary research methodologies to acquire
data and generate the rigorous analysis required for it. Primary sources for information included analysis of data from interviews with industry executives, subject matter experts, producers and users of BIPV technologies, advanced materials and devices vendors related to PV technologies, banking executives, venture capitalists, building owners, architects, engineers, managers, economists, consultants, marketing groups, governmental and non-governmental organizations, related technology associations, professional and manufacturing associations, academic research organizations, PV project installation company representatives, scientists working on new PV technologies, government officials (federal elected officials and local permitting and local planning board managers) and regulatory agencies.
Secondary sources for information included:
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
- International Energy Agency (IEA).
- U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
- U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
- U.S. Census Bureau.
- U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC).
- Canadian Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE).
- Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corp. (CMHC).
- United Nations (UN).
- European Union (EU).
- European Commission.
- European Community (EC).
- European Environment Agency (EEA).
- Chinese National Energy Commission (NEC).
- Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
- Japan Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE).
- Korean Energy Agency (KEA).
- Taiwanese Bureau of Energy.
- Australian Department of Industry, Innovation, and Science (DIIS).
- Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME).
- Mexican Energy Ministry.
- Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation (Minenergo).
- South African Department of Energy.
- The Energy Star program.
- Trade publications.
- Trade associations.
- Industry associations.
- Company literature and websites.
- Company annual reports.
- S&P industry surveys.
- Online databases.
- BCC Research (related reports).
The report’s market and financial analysis was based on data obtained from primary and secondary sources. Interview data was combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources such as trade publications, trade associations, company-specific literature and reports, and online databases to produce the baseline market estimates contained in this report. The author’s own insights and rigorous use of numerical and statistical tools were employed to generate the forecasts and comprehensive analyses of the global BIPV technology market segmented by geographic region and application segment.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
This report provides a detailed review of the global market for building-integrated photovoltaic technologies.
To help the audience fully understand the market opportunity for these technologies, the report is first geographically-segmented into the following regions, with multiple countries individually analyzed:
- North America.
- Asia-Pacific (APAC).
- Rest of the World (RoW).
The remainder of the study utilizes all gathered data to quantify the market for BIPV technologies by geographical region and market segment for the following BIPV application segments:
- Roofing shingles.
- Roofing tiles.
- Standing seam metal roofing (e.g., thin-film PV seam metal glue-down).
- Single-ply membrane roofing (e.g., thin-film PV TPO glue-down).
- Facades (also known as building cladding [i.e., the “weather skin”], this study includes “green” parking structures).
- Glazing (e.g., windows and curtain walls).
- Architectural shading (e.g., sunshading, louvers, fabrics, etc.).
As a whole, this report identifies commercial and near-commercial BIPV technologies, the manufacturers, and partner building component product manufacturers. The present to mid-term markets for each type of BIPV application are characterized and quantified in terms of capacity (MW) for the installed product and revenue to the BIPV and/or PV manufacturers. Projections are made of the market value (or at least regional price) of the wholesale value of the BIPV and/or PV component of the installed products. The estimated values used are based on manufacturers’ total revenues.
Where the global market has grown sufficiently for a particular BIPV “niche,” country and regional breakdowns are provided by geographic region and country. Much of this depends on the type of building component used in a particular region or country, and whether a suitable BIPV product has been developed, tested in the field, certified for installation, and brought up to production levels that can satisfy market demand. The various BIPV niche markets are examined in terms of type of exterior building component class, PV technology offerings, geographic region, generating capacity and revenue to the manufacturer (i.e., market value). Additional characterizations are made of the market structures, quantities and relative strengths of adjunct product manufacturers, such as metal, composite, tile and TPO roofing companies, window glass and window manufacturers, and vendors, designers and installers of architectural fabrics, and building cladding (e.g., weather envelopes). Smaller market opportunities such as skylighting and sunshading are also investigated.
The market structure discussion includes consideration of the forces shaping the markets, and the successful strategies of the early entrants into the market. This report also investigates national and regional public financial incentive strategies and regulatory measures that help or hinder the development of each BIPV market segment. The way in which each type of PV technology fits (or does not) into a given BIPV niche is examined. The coverage extends to c-Si, mc-Si, a-Si, CdTe, DSSC and OPV products.
The methodologies and assumptions used to develop the market projections in this report are discussed at length under the various technology types and geographical regions addressed. The report carefully documents data sources and assumptions so that readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they wish, test the impact on the final numbers of changing various assumptions, such as price or market penetration.
Market projections were developed for 2016 through 2021. These projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with BCC Research’s understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective.
In general, BCC Research used the following approaches:
- Identified PV technologies used l in (or the potential to be used in) BIPV application segments and their target markets through a literature review and interviews with primary sources and industry experts.
- Estimated a baseline (2015) market penetration ratio for each target market application segment within each geographical region based on key data gathered from the literature review, interviews with primary sources and industry experts, and other information sources discussed previously.
- Developed forecasts of growth trends in each target market segment.
- Analyzed technical, economic, governmental/legislative, and other factors that will influence the ability of different PV technologies and BIPV application segments to compete for a share of their respective building sector market(s), and estimated future new BIPV capacity of each technology on this basis.
Additionally, BIPV markets are examined in terms of building component markets and PV technologies as adapted to become part of a number of building component market segments. Global market values are assessed in terms of aggregates of market by geographic region, where appropriate. The market growth rates of individual BIPV segments are projected using statistical data from governments, trade journals, news items, corporate SEC filings, interviews with manufacturers and scientists, notes from field visits, scientific research reports, financial analysis, laws and regulations promulgated on every continent, and statements by public officials and building component manufacturers. Additional characterizations are made of the market structures, quantities and relative strengths of adjunct product manufacturers, such as metal, composite tile and membrane roofing companies, glazing manufacturers, vendors, designers and installers of architectural fabrics, building weather envelopes, skylights and sunshades.
Numerous contact points are provided by building component manufacturers and building project developers who would have an interest in including a premium product such as BIPV capability into their portfolio of options. Various rationales for their doing so are investigated.
Present levels of government support systems are considered in terms of their impacts on the overall market for PV capacity and potential for enhancing (or limiting) BIPV market expansion. The subtleties of the various government support policies and incentives that encourage or limit the growth of BIPV market niches are clarified. Political motivations for continuance or reductions in PV support levels are considered, noting the balance being negotiated between the PV industry as an employer of a growing number of personnel balanced against governments facing pressure to reduce their budgets because taxation pays for government, not for the tax-paying populace.
This report assumes that all grid-connected BIPV systems are fitted with BOS equipment that satisfies regulatory requirements.
Erik Vickstrom is a management consultant with Acceleration Advisors, a Milwaukee, Wis.-based boutique management consulting firm. Erik has worked with both small engineering companies and Fortune 200 companies on the commercial verification of emerging technologies and on business model development and commercialization plans with technologies in the energy, materials, electronics, manufacturing, green-building, and environmental markets. Prior to his current role, Erik worked with large to small-sizecompanies, focusing on business development and strategy in various stages. Erik is the author of other related BCC Research reports, such as ENV007C The U.S. Market for Green Building Materials, EGY074B Energy Retrofits for Commercial and Public Buildings: Global Markets, and ENV035A Renewable Energy and Energy-Efficient Technologies in Building Applications. He has also authored other publications focusing on topics in 3-D scanning and the financial sector. Erik received his degrees (MBA, MA and BS) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he also conducted his postgraduate work and studies.