Healthcare-Acquired Infection: Devices, Pharmaceuticals, and Environmental Products

Healthcare-Acquired Infection: Devices, Pharmaceuticals, and Environmental Products

This BCC Research study provides an in-depth analysis and forecast of selected areas of the global healthcare acquired infections (HAI) market. The report offers forecasts by treatment segment and type of treatment from 2015 through 2020.

Use this report to:
- Receive analysis of the global healthcare-acquired infection (HAI) market by treatment area and by type of treatment.
- Learn about the most common HAI diseases encountered by clinicians and other personnel.
- Identify the structure of the HAI market and the chief challenges and opportunities it faces.
- Learn about the key players in the HAI industry.

Highlights
- The global market for selected healthcare-acquired infection (HAI) treatments was valued at nearly $15.2 billion in 2014. This market is expected to increase from nearly $17.1 billion in 2015 to $23 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% from 2015 to 2020.
- America currently holds 42% of the global market for HAI products, but that leadership position is expected to shrink to 40% by 2020.
- The asian market is expected to hold 25% of the global market for HAI products in 2015 and is expected to increase to 33% by 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis and forecast of selected areas of the global healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) market. For purposes of this
report, HAI includes hospitals, nursing homes, outpatient surgery centers and dialysis centers. The focus of this report is on selected devices, pharmaceuticals and
environmental products currently used or under development for treatment of viral, bacterial and fungal infections. The global market for HAI products is estimated at between $17 billion and $22 billion in 2015 (depending on the products included in the study) with mid single-digit growth through 2020. The North American market and in particular the U.S. holds the largest market share of any region at 42% to 50% and the fastest growing regions for HAI treatments are Brazil and the Asian region, particularly China and India.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Healthcare-acquired infections are viral, bacterial or fungal infections that patients acquire after they are admitted to a healthcare facility. Patients can acquire these
infections from routine care; surgery; or as a complication from the use of medical devices such as ventilators, catheters and intravenous lines. This report is designed to investigate the global HAI market by treatment area and by type of treatment, with supporting tables and figures to illustrate projected growth.

Within each type of treatment, regional analyses will focus on the Americas (i.e., Canada, U.S., Mexico, Central America and South America); EMRA (i.e., Europe, the
Middle East, Russia and Africa); and Asia (i.e., Japan, China, India, other Western Pacific countries such as Australia and New Zealand and other Southeast Asian countries).

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This report offers forecasts by treatment segment and type of treatment, from 2015 through 2020, including supporting analyses for projections. The main market segments are analyzed by pharmaceutical treatments, environmental treatments and infection control devices/products. This report is a valuable tool for anyone assessing the HAI market and attempting to devise a strategy to successfully compete in this market. This report provides background on the structure of the HAI market and the chief challenges and opportunities it faces. It offers the information needed to understand the current market and to address the emerging one. The report is an invaluable tool for business planners, acquisition specialists, licensing strategists, product managers, market research analysts, investing consultants and
others interested in the HAI market, its products, its participants and its future.

METHODOLOGIES AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Information for this report was obtained from a variety of primary and secondary research sources, including industry analysts, annual reports and agencies and
organizations such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the
U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), American Hospital Association (AHA), Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air
Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and government agencies
outside the U.S. Secondary sources include literature searches, journal articles, product literature and press releases.

When precise information was not available, a consensus has been made using reasonable assumptions and estimates based on historical data.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
METHODOLOGIES AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SELECTED HAI TREATMENTS, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF HAI TREATMENTS BY
GEOGRAPHICAL AREA, 2015 AND 2020 (%) 8
CHAPTER 3 GLOBAL HAI OVERVIEW 11
RISKS FOR ACQUIRING HAI 11
MOST COMMON HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS 12
TABLE 1 CAUSES AND TYPES OF MOST COMMON HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED
INFECTIONS 13
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 13
S. AUREUS 14
Transmission Routes 14
MRSA 14
Transmission Routes 15
PNEUMONIA 15
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa 15
Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) 15
K. Pneumonia 15
CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE 16
E. COLI 16
UTI Treatment Options 16
GASTROENTERITIS-CAUSING BACTERIA 17
Treatment Options 17
VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI (VRE) 17
Types of VRE 17
LEGIONELLA BACTERIA 17
Treatment Options 18
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA 18
PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA 18
ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII 18
CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ENTEROBACTERIACEAE (CRE) 19
VIRAL INFECTIONS 19
HEPATITIS C 19
Scope of Infection 19
Treatment 20
NOROVIRUS 20
INFLUENZA VIRUS 20
Influenza Virus A, B, C 20
Transmission 21
Symptoms 21
Treatment 21
FUNGAL INFECTIONS 21
MEDICAL NEED FOR ANTIFUNGALS 21
ASPERGILLUS INFECTIONS 22
Treatment 22
YEAST INFECTIONS 22
CANDIDA INFECTIONS 22
PREVENTING HAI 23
DETERMINING THE MODE OF TRANSMISSION 23
ROLES OF HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS AND INFECTION CONTROL
INDIVIDUALS 23
TABLE 2 SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES OF INFECTION CONTROL TEAM MEMBERS 24
COMPONENTS OF A HAI SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM 26
TABLE 3 MAIN STEPS AND COMPONENTS IN DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE INFECTION
CONTROL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM 26
HEALTHCARE INFECTION POINTS OF GENERATION 26
HOSPITAL 26
FIGURE 1 OCCURRENCE OF HAI IN U.S. HOSPITALS BY TYPE, 2011 (%) 27
Hospital Surgical Procedures 28
AMBULATORY SURGERY CENTERS IN THE U.S. 28
Infection Control in ASCs 28
DIALYSIS CENTERS 28
Transmission of VRE in Dialysis Centers 29
Hepatitis Transmission in Dialysis Centers 29
ASSISTED LIVING/LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES 29
PROACTIVE TREATMENTS 30
THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND WASHING 30
CDC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PREVENTION 30
TABLE 4 CDC MEASURES FOR PREVENTION OF HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED
INFECTIONS 30
TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DECREASE IN HAI IN U.S. HOSPITAL SETTINGS, 2008-2013
(%) 32
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS 32
DEVICE DESIGN 33
HUMAN AND MONETARY COSTS OF HAI 33
U.S. HEALTHCARE SPENDING 33
U.S. HEALTHCARE SPENDING ON HAI 33
TABLE 6 ESTIMATED COSTS OF HAI IN U.S. HOSPITALS, 2012 (PER PATIENT
OCCURRENCE) ($) 33
EMRA 34
JAPAN 34
RATE OF INFECTION 34
CHINESE MARKET 35
CHANGES IN THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY 35
TABLE 7 SELECTED MERGERS AND/OR ACQUISITIONS, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 35
REGULATIONS 36
AMERICAS 36
Creating Drug Treatments 36
TABLE 8 PROCESS OF CREATING DRUG TREATMENTS IN THE U.S. 37
Infection Control Measures/Protocols 38
U.S. REGULATIONS 38
Hospital Infections Disclosure Act (HIDA) 38
Current and Pending Requirements 38
Affordable Care Act and Implications for the Pharmaceutical
Industry 38
Biosimilars 39
CMS Reimbursement for HAI 39
"Never Events" Reimbursement 40
Generating Antibiotics Incentives Now Act (2012) 40
BRAZILIAN REGULATIONS 41
EUROPEAN REGULATIONS 41
Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) 41
Implications for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers 41
JAPANESE REGULATIONS 42
CHINESE REGULATIONS 42
CHAPTER 4 HAI PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET 44
TABLE 9 BACTERIA THAT COMMONLY CAUSE HAI 44
PHARMACEUTICALS USED FOR HAI 45
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HAI PHARMACEUTICALS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 46
VIRAL HAI PHARMACEUTICALS 46
TABLE 11 SELECTED VIRAL HAI PHARMACEUTICALS BY NAME, INDICATION AND
MANUFACTURER, 2014 46
VIRAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET BY COMPANY 47
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF HEPATITIS, INFLUENZA AND PNEUMONIA
PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT HAI BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 47
VIRAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET BY CONDITION 48
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT VIRAL HAI BY
CONDITION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 48
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR HAI VIRAL PHARMACEUTICALS, BY DISEASE
TYPE, 2014 (%) 48
BACTERIAL HAI 49
THE THREAT OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 49
THE MICROBIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE 50
MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE 50
TABLE 13 ANTIBIOTIC CLASSES AND THEIR MODE OF ACTION 51
METHODS OF RESISTANCE 51
Beta-Lactamase Production 51
Importing Resistance from Other Organisms 52
Alteration of Binding Sites to Circumvent Anti-infective Effectiveness 53
Antibiotic Discharge 53
PRIMARY REASONS FOR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 53
Incomplete Course of Prescribed Medicine 53
Overuse of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics 53
Antibiotics and Food Production Animals 54
TABLE 14 ANTIBIOTICS APPROVED FOR USE IN FOOD-PRODUCING ANIMALS BY
DRUG CLASS, POUNDS USED, AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL, 2009 (POUNDS/%) 55
Patient Pressure 55
RESISTANCE BY CLASS OF ANTIBIOTIC 55
TABLE 15 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT ORGANISMS AND DRUG CLASSES AFFECTED 56
BACTERIAL HAI PHARMACEUTICALS 56
TABLE 16 SELECTED BACTERIAL HAI PHARMACEUTICALS BY NAME, INDICATION
AND MANUFACTURER, 2014 56
CLASSES OF DRUGS 58
Aminoglycosides 58
B-lactam Antibiotics 58
Cephalosporins 58
Glycopeptides 59
Lincosamides 59
Lipopeptides 60
Carbapenems 60
Penicillins 60
Polypeptides 60
Macrolides 61
Quinolones 61
Tetracyclines 61
Sulfonamides 61
Other Formulations 61
GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR BACTERIAL PHARMACEUTICALS BY COMPANY 62
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF HAI BACTERIAL PHARMACEUTICALS BY
COMPANY, 2014 (%) 62
BACTERIAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET BY TYPE 63
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT BACTERIAL HAI,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 63
FUNGAL HAI PHARMACEUTICALS 63
TABLE 18 SELECT LISTING OF PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT FUNGAL INFECTIONS
BY NAME, TYPE AND MANUFACTURER, 2014 64
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT FUNGAL HAI,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 64
FUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET BY COMPANY 65
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PHARMACEUTICALS TO TREAT FUNGAL HAI,
BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 65
GLOBAL OPPORTUNITIES 65
GLOBAL GROWTH RATES FOR PHARMACEUTICALS 66
ROLE OF EMERGING COUNTRIES IN GLOBAL MARKETS 66
PHARMACEUTICAL SALES IN EMERGING NATIONS 66
REGIONAL ANALYSIS 66
GLOBAL MARKET FOR HAI PHARMACEUTICALS 67
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HAI PHARMACEUTICALS BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 67
AMERICAS 67
TABLE 21 AMERICAS MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 22 AMERICAS MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 68
FIGURE 6 AMERICAS HAI PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET SHARES, BY DISEASE TYPE,
2015 AND 2020 (%) 68
EMRA 69
TABLE 23 EMRA MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 24 EMRA MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 70
FIGURE 7 EMRA HAI PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET SHARES BY DISEASE TYPE, 2015
AND 2020 (%) 71
ASIA 72
Japan 72
Hepatitis in Japan 72
China 72
Hepatitis in China 72
Surgical Site Infections in China 72
India 73
Australia 73
TABLE 25 ASIAN MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 26 ASIAN MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 8 ASIAN HAI PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET SHARES BY DISEASE TYPE, 2015
AND 2020 (%) 74
CHAPTER 5 HAI ENVIRONMENTAL TREATMENT MARKET 77
GLOBAL HAI ENVIRONMENTAL TREATMENT MARKET 77
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
78
AIR TREATMENT 78
ROOM FILTRATION SYSTEMS 78
ROOM PRESSURIZATION 79
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE VAPOR (HPV) 79
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) LIGHT DISINFECTION 80
WATER TREATMENT 80
DESIGN OF SINKS AND OTHER WATER FACILITIES 80
LEVELS OF CLEANING 80
ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANING 80
TABLE 28 SURVIVAL OF HOSPITAL PATHOGENS ON DRY HOSPITAL SURFACES 81
DISINFECTION 81
Levels of Disinfection 82
Disinfectant Drying Time 82
TABLE 29 ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF COMMONLY USED DISINFECTANTS 83
Cleaning Monitoring 85
Disinfectants 85
Phenolics 85
Oxidizing Agents 85
Halogens 85
Aldehydes 86
Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) 86
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 86
Bleach 86
Alcohols 86
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISINFECTANT PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE
HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 87
Antimicrobial Copper Surface Coatings 87
PATIENT SKIN PREPARATION 87
POVIDONE-IODINE SOLUTIONS 88
CHLOROHEXIDINE GLUCONATE 88
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PATIENT SKIN PREPARATION DISINFECTANTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 89
STERILIZATION SYSTEMS FOR INFECTION CONTROL 89
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL STERILIZATION PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 90
FILTRATION 90
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET OF IN-LINE MEDICAL FILTERS USED IN CONJUNCTION
WITH MEDICAL ADMINISTRATION OF SOLUTIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 91
CHEMICAL STERILIZATION 91
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL CHEMICAL STERILIZATION EQUIPMENT
AND CONSUMABLES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 92
EtO Sterilization 92
Other Types of Chemical Sterilization 93
Hydrogen Peroxide 93
Ozone 93
Chlorine Dioxide 93
Major Manufacturers in Chemical Sterilization 93
STEAM STERILIZATION 94
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL STEAM STERILIZATION EQUIPMENT AND
CONSUMABLES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 36 SELECTED MATERIALS THAT RESPOND WELL TO STEAM STERILIZATION 95
Autoclaving 95
Major Players in Heat Sterilization 95
RADIATION STERILIZATION 95
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RADIATION STERILIZATION PRODUCTS DESIGNED
TO MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
96
Gamma Radiation 96
Medical Uses 97
TABLE 38 MICROBES INACTIVATED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION AND THE AMOUNT OF
NECESSARY KGY 97
TABLE 39 MEDICAL GRADE POLYMERS CAPABLE OF TOLERATING GAMMA
RADIATION (KGY) 98
Electron-Beam Radiation 98
REGIONAL ANALYSIS 99
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS/ EQUIPMENT TO
CONTROL HAI, BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 99
AMERICAS 99
TABLE 41 AMERICAS MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS/ EQUIPMENT TO
CONTROL HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 42 AMERICAS MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
100
EMRA 100
Patient Skin Preparation Solutions 100
EMRA Market for Environmental Products/Equipment 101
TABLE 43 EMRA MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS/ EQUIPMENT TO
CONTROL HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 44 EMRA MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 102
ASIA 102
TABLE 45 ASIAN MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS/ EQUIPMENT TO
CONTROL HAI, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 46 ASIAN MARKET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HEALTHCARE-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
CHAPTER 6 HAI MEDICAL DEVICES: CATHETERS, PATIENT VENTILATION SYSTEMS
AND IN-LINE STERILIZATION FILTERS 105
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL DEVICES THAT ARE DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 105
ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS 105
CATHETERS 105
FIGURE 9 MAJOR NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN U.S. ICU BY TYPE AND PERCENT (%) 106
CATHETER COATINGS 107
Common Antimicrobial Coatings 107
Nitrofurazone 107
Minocycline/Rifampin 107
Silver Coating 108
Combination Minocycline-Rifampin-Chlorhexidine Catheters 108
SURFACE-MODIFIED CATHETER 108
GLOBAL HAI CATHETER MARKET 109
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CATHETERS WITH ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 10 PROJECTED HAI CATHETER MARKET SHARES BY TYPE, 2015 AND 2020
(%) 109
URINARY TRACT CATHETERS 110
CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERS 111
Dialysis Catheters 111
Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections (CRBSI) 111
PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERS (PICC) 112
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR CATHETER MANUFACTURERS 112
TABLE 49 KEY MANUFACTURERS OF ANTIBIOTIC-COATED CATHETERS BY NAME,
LOCATION AND PRODUCTS, 2014 113
CATHETER GROWTH IN REGIONAL MARKETS 113
TABLE 50 GLOBAL HAI CATHETER MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 114
FIGURE 11 PROJECTED GLOBAL HAI CATHETER MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2015
AND 2020 (%) 114
PATIENT VENTILATION DEVICES 115
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PATIENT VENTILATION PRODUCTS, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TYPES OF VENTILATION DEVICES 116
Noninvasive Ventilators 116
PATIENT VENTILATION MARKET 116
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NONINVASIVE VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR USE
WITH HAI-INFECTED PATIENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 117
ENDOTRACHEAL TUBES AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS 117
Coated Endotracheal Tubes 117
Tapered Endotracheal Tubes 117
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COATED ENDOTRACHEAL TUBES DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE VAP, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 118
IN-LINE STERILE IV FILTRATION 118
TABLE 54 GLOBAL STERILE IV FILTER MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 119
REGIONAL ANALYSIS 119
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PATIENT INFECTION CONTROL DEVICES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL HAI PATIENT INFECTION CONTROL DEVICES MARKET SHARES
BY REGION, 2015 AND 2020 (%) 119
THE AMERICAS 121
TABLE 56 AMERICAS MARKET FOR INFECTION CONTROL DEVICES DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI, BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 57 AMERICAS MARKET FOR CATHETERS, PATIENT VENTILATION SYSTEMS
AND IN-LINE STERILE FILTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 122
EMRA 122
TABLE 58 EMRA MARKET FOR INFECTION CONTROL DEVICES DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI, BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 59 EMRA MARKET FOR CATHETERS, PATIENT VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND
IN-LINE STERILE FILTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 123
ASIA 123
TABLE 60 ASIAN MARKET FOR INFECTION CONTROL DEVICES DESIGNED TO
MINIMIZE HAI BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 61 ASIAN MARKET FOR CATHETERS, PATIENT VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND
IN-LINE STERILE FILTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 124
CHAPTER 7 CURRENT RESEARCH, EMERGING THERAPIES AND MARKET
OPPORTUNITIES 126
EMERGING RESEARCH 126
ANTIBACTERIAL SURFACES 126
FIM-D 126
BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIVIRAL 127
"NANOTRAPS" 128
FECAL PILLS TO TREAT C. DIFFICILE 128
PHARMACEUTICAL TREATMENT PRODUCT PIPELINE 129
TABLE 62 HAI PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT PIPELINE 129
FIGURE 13 MARKET SHARE BY TYPE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUND IN
DEVELOPMENT, 2014 (%) 132
PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH 133
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS: PRODUCTS IN DEVELOPMENT 133
Achaogen 133
Melinata Therapeutics 134
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 134
Polyphor 134
The Medicines Company 134
Basilea Pharmaceuticals 135
Cempra Pharmaceuticals 135
Nabriva Therapeutics 135
Furiex Pharmaceuticals 136
Merck 136
Toyama Chemical 137
Crestone Pharma 137
Theravance Biopharma 137
Paratek Pharmaceuticals 138
AstraZeneca 138
Daiichi Sankyo 138
Roche 138
VIRAL INFECTIONS: PRODUCTS IN DEVELOPMENT 138
BioCryst Pharmaceuticals 138
Boehringer Ingelheim 139
Roche 139
Merck 139
Toyama Chemical 139
Gilead Sciences 139
Vertex 140
Bristol-Myers Squibb 140
OPPORTUNITIES/CHALLENGES FOR HAI INDUSTRY 140
CHALLENGES 141
PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OPPORTUNITIES/CHALLENGES 141
Patent Expiry 141
TABLE 63 SELECTED HAI-RELATED PHARMACEUTICAL PATENT EXPIRATIONS,
2004-2024 142
Pipeline Limitations 142
Regulatory Restrictions 142
Generic Competition 143
THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES 143
DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN THE U.S. 143
DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES OUTSIDE THE U.S. 143
CHAPTER 8 PATENTS 145
TABLE 64 NUMBER OF SELECTED PATENTS BY TYPE, JANUARY 2010 THROUGH
FEBRUARY 2015 145
PATENTS BY DATE OF ISSUE 145
TABLE 65 PHARMACEUTICAL PATENTS BY DATE OF ISSUE, JANUARY 2010
THROUGH MARCH 2015 146
TABLE 66 ENVIRONMENTAL PATENTS* BY DATE OF ISSUE, JANUARY 2010
THROUGH MARCH 2015 146
TABLE 67 MEDICAL DEVICE PATENTS BY DATE OF ISSUE, JANUARY 2010 THROUGH
MARCH 2015 146
NUMBER OF PATENTS BY MANUFACTURER 146
TABLE 68 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY MANUFACTURER, JANUARY 2010 THROUGH
FEBRUARY 2015 147
PHARMACEUTICALS 151
BACTERIAL PHARMACEUTICAL PATENTS 151
TABLE 69 PATENTS ON BACTERIAL PHARMACEUTICALS, SEPTEMBER 2010
THROUGH MARCH 2015 151
FUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL PATENTS 166
TABLE 70 PATENTS ON FUNGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, SEPTEMBER 2010 THROUGH
FEBRUARY 2015 166
VIRAL PHARMACEUTICAL PATENTS 167
TABLE 71 PATENTS ON VIRAL PHARMACEUTICALS, JANUARY 2011 THROUGH
MARCH 2015 167
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS 179
AIR FILTRATION 179
TABLE 72 PATENTS ON AIR FILTRATION, FEB 2011-MARCH 2013 180
WATER FILTRATION 182
TABLE 73 PATENTS ON WATER TREATMENT, SEPTEMBER 2010 TO MARCH 2014 182
SOLID WASTE TREATMENT 183
TABLE 74 PATENTS ON SOLID WASTE TREATMENT, APRIL 2011 THROUGH
DECEMBER 2014 184
SURFACE DISINFECTANTS 185
TABLE 75 PATENTS ON SURFACE DISINFECTANTS, JANUARY 2010 TO DECEMBER
2014 185
PATENTS FOR PATIENT DISINFECTION 191
TABLE 76 PATENTS ON PATIENT DISINFECTANTS, DECEMBER 2010 TO APRIL 2013 192
MEDICAL DEVICES 193
CATHETERS 193
TABLE 77 PATENTS ON CATHETERS, JULY 2010 TO FEBRUARY 2015 193
ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS 197
TABLE 78 PATENTS ON ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS, AUGUST 2010 THROUGH
JANUARY 2015 197
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY DIRECTORY 210
PHARMACEUTICALS 210
ABBOTT LABORATORIES 210
Business Overview 210
Products 210
TABLE 79 ABBOTT HAI PRODUCTS 210
ABBVIE INC. 210
Business overview 211
Products 211
TABLE 80 ABBVIE HAI PRODUCTS 211
ACHAOGEN INC. 211
Business Overview 211
ACTAVIS PLC 211
Business Overview 212
Products 212
TABLE 81 ACTAVIS HAI PRODUCTS 212
ASTELLAS PHARMA INC. 212
Business Overview 212
Products 213
TABLE 82 ASTELLAS HAI PRODUCTS 213
ASTRAZENECA PLC 213
Business Overview 213
Products 213
TABLE 83 ASTRAZENECA HAI PRODUCTS 213
B. BRAUN MELSUNGEN 214
Business Overview 214
Products 214
TABLE 84 B. BRAUN HAI PRODUCTS 214
BACTIGUARD AB 214
Business Overview 214
Products 215
BASILEA PHARMACEUTICA LTD. 215
Business Overview 215
Products 215
TABLE 85 BASILEA HAI PRODUCTS 215
BAXTER INTERNATIONAL 216
Business Overview 216
BAYER AG (MILES-BAYER) 216
Business Overview 216
Products 217
TABLE 86 BAYER HAI PRODUCTS 217
BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB 217
Business Overview 217
Products 217
TABLE 87 BRISTOL MYERS SQUIBB HAI PRODUCTS 217
GILEAD SCIENCES 218
Business Overview 218
Products 218
TABLE 88 GILEAD SCIENCES HAI PRODUCTS 218
GLAXOSMITHKLINE 218
Business Overview 218
Products 219
TABLE 89 GLAXOSMITHKLINE HAI PRODUCTS 219
JANSSEN THERAPEUTICS (FORMERLY TIBOTEC THERAPEUTICS) 219
Business Overview 219
Products 219
TABLE 90 JANSSEN THERAPEUTICS HAI PRODUCTS 219
JOHNSON & JOHNSON 220
Business Overview 220
Products 220
TABLE 91 JOHNSON & JOHNSON HAI PRODUCTS 220
MELINTA THERAPEUTICS (FORMERLY RIB-X PHARMACEUTICALS) 220
Business Overview 220
MERCK 221
Business Overview 221
Products 221
TABLE 92 MERCK HAI PRODUCTS 221
NOVARTIS PHARMACEUTICALS 222
Business Overview 222
Products 222
TABLE 93 NOVARTIS HAI PRODUCTS 222
PARATEK PHARMACEUTICALS 222
Business Overview 222
PFIZER 223
Business Overview 223
Products 223
TABLE 94 PFIZER HAI PRODUCTS 223
ROCHE PHARMACEUTICALS 224
Business Overview 224
Products 224
TABLE 95 ROCHE HAI PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 224
SHIRE PLC 224
Business Overview 224
Products 225
TABLE 96 SHIRE HAI PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 225
SUN PHARMA 225
Business Overview 225
Products 226
TABLE 97 SUN PHARMA HAI PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 226
TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS 226
Business Overview 227
THE MEDICINE COMPANY 227
Business Overview 227
Products 227
TABLE 98 THE MEDICINE COMPANY HAI PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 227
THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA 227
Business Overview 228
Products 228
TABLE 99 THERAVANCE HAI PRODUCTS 228
TOYAMA CHEMICAL CO. LTD. 228
Business Overview 228
Products 228
TABLE 100 TOYAMA CHEMICAL HAI PRODUCTS 228
VENUS REMEDIES LTD. 229
Business Overview 229
Products 229
TABLE 101 VENUS REMEDIES HAI PRODUCTS 229
ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTS 229
3M HEALTHCARE, MEDICAL DIVISION 229
Business Overview 230
Products 230
ADVANCED STERILIZATION PRODUCTS 230
Business Overview 230
Products 230
ANDERSEN PRODUCTS INC. 231
Business Overview 231
Products 231
BELIMED 231
Business Overview 231
Products 231
BETA STAR LIFE SCIENCE EQUIPMENT (R-V INDUSTRIES) 231
Business Overview 232
Products 232
BIOQUELL UK LTD. 232
Business Overview 232
Products 232
CONSOLIDATED STERILIZER SYSTEMS 232
Business Overview 233
Products 233
E-BEAM SERVICES INC. 233
Business Overview 233
Products 233
ECOLAB 233
Business Overview 233
Products 234
EOS SURFACES LLC 234
Business Overview 234
Product 234
GETINGE USA INC. 234
Business Overview 235
Products 235
IBA GROUP 235
Business Overview 235
Products 235
LTE SCIENTIFIC LTD. 235
Business Overview 236
Products 236
LUMALIER 236
Business Overview 236
Products 236
MESA LABORATORIES 236
Business Overview 236
Products 237
METREX RESEARCH 237
Business Overview 237
Products 237
NORION INC. (SEE STERIGENICS) 237
PRIMUS STERILIZER CO. INC. 238
Business Overview 238
Products 238
RUHOF CORP. 238
Business Overview 238
Products 238
SANOSIL INTERNATIONAL 239
Business Overview 239
Products 239
SEALED AIR CORP. (DIVERSEY CARE) 239
Business Overview 239
Products 239
STERIGENICS INTERNATIONAL INC. 240
Business Overview 240
Products 240
STERIS CORP. 240
Business Overview 240
Products 241
SYNERGY HEALTH STERILISATION UK LTD 241
Business Overview 241
Products 241
TERRAGENE SRL 242
Business Overview 242
Products 242
TSO3 242
Business Overview 242
Products 242
TUTTNAUER USA CO. LTD. 243
Business Overview 243
Products 243
ULTRAVIOLET DEVICES INC. 243
Business Overview 243
Products 243
XENEX DISINFECTION SERVICES 243
Business Overview 244
Products 244
INFECTION CONTROL PRODUCTS/DEVICES 244
B BRAUN MELSUNGEN AG 244
Business Overview 244
Products 244
BECTON DICKINSON 245
Business Overview 245
Products 245
CANTEL MEDICAL CORP. 246
Business Overview 246
Products 246
CAREFUSION CORP. 246
Business Overview 246
Products 246
CLOROX CO. 247
Business Overview 247
Products 247
COLOPLAST GROUP 247
Business Overview 247
Products 247
COOK MEDICAL 248
Business Overview 248
Products 248
COVIDIEN PLC (MEDTRONIC) 248
Business Overview 248
Products 248
C.R. BARD 249
Business Overview 249
Products 249
HALYARD HEALTH 249
Business Overview 249
Products 249
ONDINE BIOMEDICAL INC. 250
Business Overview 250
Products 250
ROCHESTER MEDICAL LTD. 250
Business Overview 250
Products 251
SCHULKE & MAYR GMBH 251
Business Overview 251
Products 251
TELEFLEX MEDICAL 251
Business Overview 251
Products 251
WELCH ALLYN INC. 252
Business Overview 252
Products 252