Terahertz Radiation Systems: Technologies and Global Markets

Terahertz Radiation Systems: Technologies and Global Markets

The overall goals of this report include assessing the technological process that has been made toward bridging the terahertz gap and assessing the commercial potential of THz radiation devices over the next five to 10 years.

Use this report to:
- Identify the THz applications that are most likely to achieve significant commercial sales by 2024.
- Analyze emerging global market for THz radiation devices.
- Assess the potential commercial market for THz devices.

Highlights
- The global market for terahertz radiation devices and systems reached $53.4 million and $54.7 million in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40.4% to reach $298.5 million in 2019 and is also forecasted to reach $1.2 billion in 2024 at a CAGR of 32.3%.
- Imaging as a segment is projected to grow from $38.6 million in 2014 to $169.5 million in 2019 at a CAGR of 34.4% for the period 2014-2019. It is also forecast to reach $520.5 million in 2024 at a CAGR of 25.2%.
- Spectroscopy as a segment is expected to grow from $16.1million in 2014 to $23.0 million by 2019, increasing at a CAGR of 7.4% for the period 2014-2019. This market is expected to reach $32.9 million in 2024 at a CAGR of 7.4%.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND
Over the last 100 years or so, physicists and engineers have progressively learned to exploit new areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, they
have developed technologies for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. Sandwiched between the optical on the short wavelength side and radio on the long wavelength extreme, the terahertz (THz) frequency range (also called the far infrared or submillimeter-wave region) has been the least explored and developed portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The potential usefulness of THz radiation, with its ability to penetrate a wide range of nonconducting materials, has been known for a long time. The first images generated using THz radiation date from as far back as the 1960s.

However, practical applications of THz radiation have been longer in coming, due to the so-called “terahertz gap.” The terahertz gap refers to the technologies needed to
generate, channel and detect THz radiation subject to real-world constraints such as size, cost and operating temperatures. Recent developments in THz radiation sources,
detectors and waveguides have started to close the terahertz gap, opening up a range of potential applications in transportation security, medical imaging, nondestructive
testing and other fields.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an update of an earlier BCC Research report, published in 2013. The overall goals of this report include assessing the technological process that has been
made toward bridging the terahertz gap and assessing the commercial potential of THz radiation devices over the next five to 10 years. Specific objectives include:
Identifying the THz applications that are most likely to achieve significant commercial sales by 2024. Assessing any remaining barriers to their commercialization, and developing quantitative estimates of potential sales. Analyzing promising THz applications in the context of user needs and competing technologies. Developing quantitative market projections through 2024. Identifying companies that are well positioned to profit from these trends.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended especially for marketing executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the emerging market
for THz radiation devices is headed over the next 10 years. Although the report is organized around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and coverage. That is, it is concerned less with theory and jargon than with what works, how much of the latter the market is likely to purchase and at what price. The report has not been written specifically for scientists and technologists. However, the report’s findings concerning the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications, should interest them as well.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
The report addresses the emerging global market for THz radiation devices, including the classes of devices listed below.
- Imaging devices.
- Spectroscopes.
- Other sensors.
- Communications devices.
- Computing devices.

The study format includes the following major elements:
- Executive summary.
- Definitions.
- General properties of THz radiation.
- Historical milestones in the development of THz radiation devices.
- Emerging and developmental THz radiation technologies and applications that have the greatest commercial potential through 2024.
- Detailed market estimates and projections for each the period 2014 to 2019
- General assessment of expected market trends in the longer term (2019 to 2024).
- Industry structure.
- Patent analysis.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY
Projecting the market for emerging technologies, whose commercial potential has not yet been proven, is a challenging task. This is nowhere truer than the THz radiation
field, which may help to explain why many analysts focus on supply-side technology assessments. However, BCC Research’s objective in this report is to provide not just a technology assessment but also an initial commercial assessment of the potential commercial market for THz devices. To accomplish this objective, BCC Research used a multiphase approach to identify the technologies with the greatest commercial potential and quantify the related markets.

In the first phase of the analysis, BCC Research identified a long list of THz technologies and applications, including those that are still under development. In the second phase, BCC Research eliminated those applications that appear to have little likelihood of making it into commercial use in the next five to 10 years, which was accomplished through a literature review and interviews with industry sources. The result of phase two was a short list of THz technologies with the greatest commercial potential over the time period covered by this report. The third phase focused on quantifying the potential market for each short-listed THz technology, by application, and identifying the main prerequisites for commercial success. Phase three actually had two phases: 1) development of near- to midterm (2014 to 2019) projections, and 2) development of longer-term (2019 to 2024) projections.

The development of such long-term projections is a departure from the usual BCC Research report format, necessitated by the long time frame for commercialization of
many of the technologies analyzed in this report. Obviously, the projections for the out-years beyond 2019 are more tentative than the projections for 2014 to 2019. The specific assumptions and approach BCC Research used to develop the projections (both near-/midterm and long-term) for each THz technology and application are documented in detail under the various segments addressed. This way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test the impact
on the final numbers of changing the underlying assumptions. One of the approaches used by BCC Research deserves special mention here. Particularly in the case of THz applications that are still under development, BCC Research used the sales performance of non-THz applications that share some of the same functions or other characteristics with the respective THz applications as a benchmark for assessing the latter’s sales potential.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE A GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE A GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY TYPE, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY TABLE B GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE B GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF TERAHERTZ RADIATION 11
DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 11
PROPERTIES 11
Line of Sight Travel 11
Limited Range 12
Safety 12
Ability to Penetrate Nonconducting Materials 13
Improved Image Resolution/Contrast 13
Absorption by Water and Other Materials 13
Interactions with Metal 14
Spectral Sensitivity 14
HISTORY 14
THZ ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 16
THZ SOURCES 16
Laser Sources 16
Optically Pumped THz Lasers 16
Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Laser 17
Quantum Cascade Lasers 18
Free-Electron Lasers 18
Electronic Sources 19
Backward-Wave Oscillators 19
Direct Multiplied Sources 19
Photomixing 20
Hybrid Sources 20
THZ DETECTORS 20
Direct Detectors 20
Bolometers 20
Golay Cells 21
Pyroelectric Detectors 21
Semiconductor Detectors 22
Heterodyne Receivers 22
Schottky Mixers 23
Superconductor-Isolator-Superconductor Mixers 23
Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers 23
Other Technologies 23
Semiconductor Nanowire-Based Detectors 23
THZ WAVEGUIDES 24
Metal Wire Waveguide 24
Other Types of THz Waveguides 24
THZ SWITCHES, REGULATORS, LENSES AND OTHER DEVICES 24
Optically Switched Metamaterial THz Switch 25
Organic Molecule Switching 25
Voltage Controlled Metamaterial THz Modulator 25
Ballistic Deflection THz Transistor 25
THz Lenses, Filters and Windows 26
THz Isolator 26
Nanotube-Based THz Isolator 26
Metal-Insulator Electronics 27
NEW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES 27
Nanomaterials 27
Superconductors 28
Metamaterials 28
FIGURE 1 SPLIT RING RESONATOR 29
Graphene 30
Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) 31
TYPES OF THZ SYSTEMS 32
IMAGING SYSTEMS 32
SPECTROSCOPES 33
SENSORS 33
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES 33
COMPUTERS 33
THERAPEUTIC DEVICES 34
POTENTIAL THZ END USES AND APPLICATIONS 35
TABLE 1 POTENTIAL END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF THZ RADIATION 35
OVERALL MARKET SIZE AND SEGMENTATION 35
MARKET SIZE 35
FIGURE 2 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 35
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 36
TABLE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 36
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR THZ BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2013-2024
(%) 37
CHAPTER 4 TERAHERTZ IMAGING SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND
MARKETS 39
TECHNOLOGIES 39
ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE SYSTEMS 39
TYPE OF ILLUMINATION 39
Pulsed Systems 39
Continuous-Wave Systems 40
TECHNOLOGICAL HURDLES 40
Power 40
Spatial Resolution 41
Signal-to-Noise Ratio 42
Image Acquisition Speed 42
Scattering 43
Cost 43
Non-Line-of-Sight Applications 43
MANUFACTURERS 44
TABLE 3 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING/DEVELOPING TERAHERTZ IMAGING
DEVICES 45
END USES AND APPLICATIONS 45
TABLE 4 POTENTIAL THZ IMAGING END USES AND APPLICATIONS 46
SECURITY/PUBLIC SAFETY 46
Passenger Screening 46
HEALTHCARE 47
Medical Imaging 47
Intraoperative Imaging 48
Skin Cancer Detection 49
Endoscopy 49
Clinical Dentistry 49
Diagnostics 50
MANUFACTURING 50
Process/Quality Control 50
TABLE 5 THZ NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING APPLICATIONS 50
Aerospace 51
Pharmaceuticals 51
Semiconductor Wafer and Circuit Inspection and Testing 51
Other Applications 52
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 52
Astronomy 52
Art and Archaeology 53
MILITARY/DEFENSE 53
Target Acquisition and Identification 53
Land Mine and IED Detection 54
MULTIPURPOSE 54
Compact, Low-Cost THz Cameras 54
MARKETS 55
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING SYSTEMS BY END
USE, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 55
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ IMAGING BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2024 ($
MILLIONS) 56
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN THZ IMAGING SYSTEM MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION,
2013-2024 (%) 56
SECURITY AND PUBLIC SAFETY 57
Passenger Screening 57
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ AND OTHER AIRPORT SECURITY
SCREENING EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 57
HEALTHCARE 58
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING DEVICES FOR HEALTHCARE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 59
Biomedical Imaging 59
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MEDICAL IMAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 59
Intraoperative Imaging 59
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING EQUIPMENT, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING
TECHNOLOGIES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING EQUIPMENT SALES) 60
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INTRAOPERATIVE TERAHERTZ IMAGING
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 61
Skin Cancer Detection 61
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SKIN CANCER IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 61
Endoscopy 62
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ ENDOSCOPES, THROUGH 2024 ($
MILLIONS) 62
Clinical Dentistry 62
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ DENTAL CARIES IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 63
Diagnostics 63
Burn Diagnosis 63
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BURN DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 64
MANUFACTURING 64
Nondestructive Testing 64
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING EQUIPMENT FOR NDT
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 65
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 65
Astronomy 65
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ ASTRONOMICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 66
MILITARY/DEFENSE 66
Radar Imaging 66
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MILITARY RADAR APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 67
MULTIPURPOSE 67
Compact THz Imagers 67
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPACT, LOW-COST THZ CAMERAS, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 68
CHAPTER 5 TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPES: TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND
MARKETS 70
TECHNOLOGIES 70
SOURCES 70
REFLECTIVE VS. TRANSMISSION DETECTION 70
DETECTORS 71
TECHNOLOGICAL HURDLES 71
Slow Acquisition Speeds 71
END USES AND APPLICATIONS 72
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 72
Materials Science 72
Biochemistry 72
Plasma Diagnostics 73
Art and Archaeology 73
Environmental and Earth Science 74
MANUFACTURERS 74
TABLE 20 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING/ DEVELOPING TERAHERTZ
SPECTROSCOPES 74
MARKETS 75
SUMMARY 75
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEMS, 2013-2024
($ MILLIONS) 75
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 75
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY EQUIPMENT FOR
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 76
CHAPTER 6 TERAHERTZ SENSORS: TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 78
TECHNOLOGIES 78
THZ BIOCHIPS 78
MOISTURE DETECTORS 78
APPLICATIONS 78
TABLE 22 POTENTIAL THZ SENSOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS 79
SECURITY AND PUBLIC SAFETY 79
Chemical Agent Detection 79
HEALTHCARE 79
Medical Diagnostics 79
MANUFACTURING 79
Process/Quality Control 79
AGRICULTURE 80
Measurement of Leaf and Seed Water Content 80
MILITARY/DEFENSE 80
Chemical Agent Detection 80
MARKETS 80
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SENSORS BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SENSORS BY END-USER SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 81
FIGURE 9 TERAHERTZ SENSOR MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2013-2024 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 81
SECURITY AND PUBLIC SAFETY 82
Chemical Agent Detection 82
TABLE 24 GLOBAL SECURITY/PUBLIC SAFETY MARKET FOR THZ CHEMICAL
WARFARE AGENT AND TOXIC CHEMICAL DETECTORS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 83
HEALTHCARE 83
Medical Diagnostics 83
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN MEDICAL
DIAGNOSTICS APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 84
MANUFACTURING 84
Process/Quality Control 84
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 84
Pathogen Detection 84
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 85
Measurement of Package Moisture Content 85
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN MEASUREMENT OF
PACKAGE MOISTURE CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 85
AGRICULTURE 85
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MOISTURE SENSORS USED IN
AGRICULTURE, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 86
MILITARY/DEFENSE 86
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MILITARY/DEFENSE MARKET FOR THZ CHEMICAL WARFARE
AGENT AND TOXIC CHEMICAL DETECTORS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 86
CHAPTER 7 TERAHERTZ COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS
AND MARKETS 88
TECHNOLOGIES 88
ANTENNAS 88
EMITTERS 89
MODULATORS 90
FILTERS 92
END USES AND APPLICATIONS 92
SATELLITE-TO-SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS 92
INDOOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 93
TACTICAL (MILITARY) COMMUNICATIONS 93
MARKETS 94
SUMMARY 94
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BY END-USER
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BY
END-USER SEGMENT, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN THZ COMMUNICATION MARKET SHARES BY END-USER
SEGMENT, 2013-2024 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 95
COMMUNICATIONS 95
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ DEVICES USED IN CIVILIAN
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 96
Satellite-to-Satellite Communications 96
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ CIVILIAN SATELLITE-TO-SATELLITE
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 97
Indoor Wireless Communications 97
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ INDOOR COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 98
MILITARY/DEFENSE 98
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ COMMUNICATION DEVICES USED IN
MILITARY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 99
Tactical Communications 99
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 100
Military Satellite Communications 100
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MILITARY SATELLITE-TO-SATELLITE
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 100
CHAPTER 8 TERAHERTZ COMPUTING: TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 102
TECHNOLOGIES 102
WAVEGUIDES 102
INTERCONNECTS 102
TRANSISTORS 103
END USES AND APPLICATIONS 103
MARKET 104
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING
INTERCONNECTS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 105
CHAPTER 9 OTHER TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGIES, APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 107
TECHNOLOGIES 107
THZ PULSE TECHNOLOGY 107
END USES AND APPLICATIONS 107
CANCER THERAPY 107
MARKET 108
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 110
NATIONALITY 110
FIGURE 12 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES BY NATIONALITY, 2013 (% OF TOTAL
COMPANIES) 110
ANNUAL SALES 111
FIGURE 13 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES SEGMENTED BY TOTAL ANNUAL REVENUES,
2013 (% OF ALL THZ COMPANIES) 111
FIGURE 14 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES BY TYPE OF OWNERSHIP, 2013 (% OF ALL THZ
COMPANIES) 112
PRODUCT SPECIALIZATION 112
FIGURE 15 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES SPECIALIZING IN THZ TECHNOLOGY VS.
COMPANIES WITH OTHER PRODUCT LINES, 2013 (% OF ALL THZ COMPANIES) 113
COMMERCIALIZATION 113
FIGURE 16 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES WITH COMMERCIAL PRODUCT, 2013 (% OF
ALL THZ COMPANIES) 113
CHAPTER 11 GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED THZ RESEARCH PROGRAMS 116
UNITED STATES 116
FEDERAL-LEVEL INITIATIVES 116
Department of Defense 116
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 117
Terahertz Electronics Program 117
Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) Project 117
Mission Adaptable Chemical Sensor (MACS) Project 117
U.S. Army 118
U.S. Air Force 118
U.S. Navy 119
Department of Homeland Security 119
Department of Energy 120
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 120
National Science Foundation 121
Integrative, Hybrid and Complex Systems (IHCS) Program 121
National Institutes of Health 121
INDIVIDUAL STATE INITIATIVES 121
EUROPE 121
EUROPEAN UNION 122
Ultrafast Electronics for Terahertz Rapid Analysis in Compact
Lab-on-Chip Applications (ULTRA) Project 122
Optically Driven Terahertz Amplifiers (OPTHER) Project 122
Multispectral Terahertz, Infrared, Visible Imaging and Spectroscopy
(MUSIS) Project 123
Towards 0.5 Terahertz Silicon/Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar
Technology (DOTFIVE) Project 123
TeraTOP 124
EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY 124
INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENTS 125
Germany 125
United Kingdom 125
Italy 126
Japan 126
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX A COMPANY PROFILES 128
COMPANIES THAT ARE PRODUCING OR KNOWN TO BE DEVELOPING THZ
RADIATION-BASED PRODUCTS 128
AB MILLIMETRE 128
ACREO AB 128
ADVANTEST CORP. 129
AGILTRON 129
ALPES LASERS SA 129
APPLIED RESEARCH AND PHOTONICS INC. 129
BAE SYSTEMS PLC 130
BECKER PHOTONIK GMBH 130
BRIDGE12 TECHNOLOGIES INC. 130
BROADBAND INC. 131
BRUKER OPTICS INC. 131
CANON INC. 131
COHERENT INC. 131
DEL MAR PHOTONICS INC. 132
DIGITAL BARRIERS PLC 132
EMCORE CORP. 132
FEMTOLASERS PRODUKTIONS GMBH 133
GENTEC-EO USA 133
INNOVATIVE PHOTONICS SOLUTIONS INC. 133
INSIGHT PRODUCT CO. 134
JENA OPTRONIK GMBH 134
LOCKHEED MARTIN SPACE SYSTEMS 134
LONGWAVE PHOTONICS LLC 134
M SQUARED LASERS LTD. 135
MENLO SYSTEMS GMBH 135
MICROTECH INSTRUMENTS INC. 135
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP. 136
NOVATRANS GROUP SA 136
NP PHOTONICS INC. 136
OPHIR-SPIRICON INC. 137
PICOMETRIX LLC 137
QMC INSTRUMENTS LTD. 137
RADIABEAM TECHNOLOGIES LLC 138
RAYTHEON CO. 138
SRI INTERNATIONAL. 138
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP. 139
SCIENCETECH INC. 139
SMITHS DETECTION INC. 139
SPIRE CORP. 140
TELEDYNE SCIENTIFIC AND IMAGING LLC 140
TERAPHYSICS CORP. 140
TERASENSE DEVELOPMENT LABS LLC 141
TERAVIEW LTD. 141
THOMAS KEATING LTD. 142
TRAYCER DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS INC. 142
TOCHIGI NIKON CORP. 142
TOPTICA PHOTONICS AG 143
TOSHIBA CORPORATION 143
UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 143
VERISANTE TECHNOLOGY INC. 144
VERMONT PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 144
VIRGINIA DIODES INC. 144
ZOMEGA TERAHERTZ CORP. 145
OTHER COMPANIES THAT ARE CONDUCTING OR HAVE CONDUCTED THZ
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 145
CHAPTER 13 APPENDIX B THZ RESEARCH PROGRAMS 148
NORTH AMERICA-BASED ORGANIZATIONS 148
ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 148
JEFFERSON NATIONAL ACCELERATOR FACILITY FREE ELECTRON LASER
PROGRAM 148
LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY 149
LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY 149
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TERAHERTZ RESEARCH
LABORATORY 149
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE (RPI) CENTER FOR TERAHERTZ
RESEARCH 150
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORY 150
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA (SANTA BARBARA) (UCSB) INSTITUTE FOR
TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 151
FOREIGN-BASED ORGANIZATIONS 151
ASIA 151
National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Terahertz Science and
Technology Center 151
Osaka University Institute of Laser Engineering Division of Laser
Terahertz Research 152
Rikagaku Kenkyusho (RIKEN) Terahertz-Wave Research Group 152
EUROPE 152
Aachen University Institute for Semiconductor Electronics 152
Braunschweig Technical University Terahertz Communication Lab 153
Czech Academy of Sciences Laboratory of Terahertz Spectroscopy 153
Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques 153
Leibniz Gemeinschaft/German Teraherz Center 154
National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics Terahertz and
Low Temperature Group 154
Oxford University Terahertz Photonics Group 155
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Terahertz Group 155
Technical University of Vienna Photonics Institute THz Group 155
University of Leeds Institute of Microwaves and Photonics THz
Imaging Group 156
CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX C PATENT ANALYSIS 158
PATENT ANALYSIS 158
FIGURE 17 SUMMARY OF U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT
APPLICATIONS AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS
IDENTIFIED)
159
FIGURE 18 U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR THZ COMPONENTS AND
SUBSYSTEMS AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS
IDENTIFIED)
160
FIGURE 19 U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR COMPLETE THZ
SYSTEMS AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS
IDENTIFIED)
161
FIGURE 20 U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS
BY NATIONALITY OF GRANTEE OR APPLICANT AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL
THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS IDENTIFIED)
162
FIGURE 21 U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS
BY TYPE OF GRANTEE OR APPLICANT AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ
PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS IDENTIFIED)
163
TABLE 39 MAJOR THZ IP PORTFOLIOS (NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS/PATENT
APPLICATIONS) 164

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE A GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY TABLE B GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 POTENTIAL END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF THZ RADIATION 35
TABLE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 3 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING/DEVELOPING TERAHERTZ IMAGING DEVICES 45
TABLE 4 POTENTIAL THZ IMAGING END USES AND APPLICATIONS 46
TABLE 5 THZ NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING APPLICATIONS 50
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ IMAGING BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2024 ($
MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ AND OTHER AIRPORT SECURITY
SCREENING EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 57
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING DEVICES FOR HEALTHCARE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MEDICAL IMAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING EQUIPMENT, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INTRAOPERATIVE TERAHERTZ IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SKIN CANCER IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ ENDOSCOPES, THROUGH 2024 ($
MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ DENTAL CARIES IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BURN DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING EQUIPMENT FOR NDT
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ ASTRONOMICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MILITARY RADAR APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPACT, LOW-COST THZ CAMERAS, THROUGH
2024 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 20 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING/ DEVELOPING TERAHERTZ
SPECTROSCOPES 74
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY EQUIPMENT FOR
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 22 POTENTIAL THZ SENSOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS 79
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SENSORS BY END-USER SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 24 GLOBAL SECURITY/PUBLIC SAFETY MARKET FOR THZ CHEMICAL WARFARE
AGENT AND TOXIC CHEMICAL DETECTORS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN MEDICAL
DIAGNOSTICS APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ BIOCHIPS USED IN MEASUREMENT OF
PACKAGE MOISTURE CONTROL, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MOISTURE SENSORS USED IN
AGRICULTURE, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MILITARY/DEFENSE MARKET FOR THZ CHEMICAL WARFARE
AGENT AND TOXIC CHEMICAL DETECTORS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BY END-USER
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ DEVICES USED IN CIVILIAN
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ CIVILIAN SATELLITE-TO-SATELLITE
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ INDOOR COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ COMMUNICATION DEVICES USED IN
MILITARY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ MILITARY SATELLITE-TO-SATELLITE
COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING
INTERCONNECTS, THROUGH 2024 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 39 MAJOR THZ IP PORTFOLIOS (NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS/PATENT
APPLICATIONS) 164

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE A GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY TYPE, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE B GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 SPLIT RING RESONATOR 29
FIGURE 2 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 35
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR THZ BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2013-2024
(%) 37
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING SYSTEMS BY END
USE, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 55
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN THZ IMAGING SYSTEM MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION,
2013-2024 (%) 56
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES,
2013 (% OF TOTAL INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGING EQUIPMENT SALES) 60
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEMS, 2013-2024
($ MILLIONS) 75
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ SENSORS BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 9 TERAHERTZ SENSOR MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2013-2024 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 81
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BY
END-USER SEGMENT, 2013-2024 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN THZ COMMUNICATION MARKET SHARES BY END-USER
SEGMENT, 2013-2024 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 95
FIGURE 12 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES BY NATIONALITY, 2013 (% OF TOTAL
COMPANIES) 110
FIGURE 13 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES SEGMENTED BY TOTAL ANNUAL REVENUES,
2013 (% OF ALL THZ COMPANIES) 111
FIGURE 14 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES BY TYPE OF OWNERSHIP, 2013 (% OF ALL THZ
COMPANIES) 112
FIGURE 15 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES SPECIALIZING IN THZ TECHNOLOGY VS.
COMPANIES WITH OTHER PRODUCT LINES, 2013 (% OF ALL THZ COMPANIES) 113
FIGURE 16 TERAHERTZ COMPANIES WITH COMMERCIAL PRODUCT, 2013 (% OF ALL
THZ COMPANIES) 113
FIGURE 17 SUMMARY OF U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT
APPLICATIONS AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS
IDENTIFIED)
159
FIGURE 18 U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR THZ COMPONENTS AND
SUBSYSTEMS AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS
IDENTIFIED)
160
FIGURE 19 U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR COMPLETE THZ SYSTEMS
AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS IDENTIFIED) 161
FIGURE 20 U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS BY
NATIONALITY OF GRANTEE OR APPLICANT AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ
PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS IDENTIFIED)
162
FIGURE 21 U.S. TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS BY
TYPE OF GRANTEE OR APPLICANT AS OF NOV. 1, 2014 (% OF TOTAL THZ PATENTS
AND APPLICATIONS IDENTIFIED)
163