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In thin-film HJs, the active layer is of the order of ~## nm thick and the most successful acceptor and donor combinations to date are made from semiconducting polymers based on thiophene (for example, poly-##-n-hexyl-##- thiophene) as the light absorber and electron donor, and fullerene derivatives such as PCBM ([##]-phenyl-C## butyric acid) as the electron acceptor.

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